Chapter 15 The Americas - Mr. Pfannenstiel's AP World History ...

Chapter 15 The Americas - Mr. Pfannenstiel's AP World History ...

Classical Era Variations: The Americas 500 BCE to 1200 CE AP World History Notes Chapter 7

Todays Class Today we will be talking about the last of the Classic Era Civilizations in the unit Today we are heading back to the Americas to talk about the Mayans

Ancient Maya Bellwork The Mayans are probably the most famous ancient American people What, if anything, do you know about the Maya?

Opinion Objective WWBAT: Discuss the major characteristics of Mayan civilization WWBAT: Summarize key information

and characteristics of Classical India Theme Tuesday Bellwork What is an example of Interaction Between Humans and the Environment in Mali Empire? Answers Vary

What is an example of State-Building, Expansion and Conflict in Kingdom of Ghana? Answers Vary Objective WWBAT: Discuss the major

characteristics of Mayan civilization Interactive Notebook Set Up 1/17/2017 Ancient Mayan Society This will be on one page

Interactive Notebook Set Up 1/17/2017 West African Kingdoms Chart This will be on one page

The Maya Science/Writing Economy/ Hierarchy

Religion Mesoamerica Meso = means middle Mesoamerica =

stretches from central Mexico to northern Central America The Maya

Settled the Yucatan Peninsula of present-day Mexico Mayan ruins have been found throughout the area The height of Mayan civilization dates

from approximately 250-900CE The Maya Not one unified empire, instead, a patchwork of city-states & kingdoms Much like Ancient Mesopotamia and

Greece All city-states shared common language, culture, and so on Social Hierarchy Most Maya were farmers

They supplied resources for an elaborate trading network These farmers were relatively poor Social Hierarchy Each city had a ruling chief

The next highest group was the nobles Nobles served as city officials and military leaders Mayan Economy

Economy was based on agriculture and trade Farmers grew: maize, beans, squash, pumpkins, chili peppers, tomatoes Farmers brought surplus crops to open markets traded for cotton,

jade, pottery, fish, deer meat, and salt Mayan Economy Merchants traded throughout Mexico & Central America Canoes used to trade along rivers

Goods were carried by humans overland no wheels yet; no large domesticated animals

Mayan Science Mayan priests were excellent mathematicians and astronomers Developed very complex math The Mayan independently invented Zero

Mayan Science Mayans developed accurate calendars Calendar of 365.242 days (17 seconds off) These were used to predict eclipses,

schedule religious ceremonies, and determine times to plant and harvest Mayan Writing One of the first Native American cultures to develop a writing system

Only within the past 25 years have we made any breakthroughs in translating Mayan writing Maya recorded: genealogy of their kings & royal families, mythology, history, ritual practices, and trade

Mayan Religion Believed in 2 levels of existence: (1) the daily physical life they lived (2) the Otherworld, a spiritual world of gods, the souls of

ancestors, and other supernatural creatures Actions on 1 level could affect things on the other level Mayan Religion

Religion was the center of Mayan life Mayan kings was BOTH political leaders AND spiritual leaders Performed rituals and

ceremonies to satisfy the gods Huge temples and pyramids built where thousands could gather for special religious ceremonies and festivals

Mayan Religion Images on Mayan temples, sacred objects, and pottery are our best sources on Mayan Religion Human sacrifice and bloodletting rituals was HUGE part of religious

ceremonies Mayan Religion Some ceremonies also included a ritual ball game This games is called pok-a-tok

Rubber balls batted back and forth across a walled court Symbolized back & forth struggle between this world and the next The Maya Ball Game

High-ranking captives, prisoners of war contestants Execution of losers immediately follows the match Most Maya ceremonial centers, towns and cities had courts

Chichen-Itza - Ball Court A Goal in the Ball Court at Chichn Itz, Mexico Collapse of the Maya

Unclear as to why the Maya collapsed Political disunity? Agricultural breakdown from warfare? From over-farming? Long-term drought? Malnutrition, sickness, famine, high

death rates Probably a combination of all of these factors Collapse of the Maya Though the Maya dominance began

to falter in around 900 CE it is debatable whether the Maya collapsed There are still millions of people descended from the Mayans living in the Yucatan Peninsula

Teotihuacan Teotihuacan Teotihuacan was northeast of present-day Mexico City

Had about 200,000 people at its peak City was laid out on a grid Teotihuacan Excavations show this to be an extremely impressive city

600 pyramids, 2000 apartment compounds, 500 workshop areas, and a huge marketplace have all been uncovered Teotihuacan

Reason for collapse is still unknown Probably declined when invaded by another Mesoamerican culture known as the Toltec Like the Mayans there were also like environmental factors that made Teotihuacan vulnerable

Moche Dominated a 250-mile stretch of Perus coast Incorporated 13 river valleys Grew maize, beans, squash, and cotton

Fishermen harvested anchovies from the Pacific Moche Political System Governed by warrior-priests Lived atop huge pyramids

Used hallucinogenic drugs to mediate between this world and that of the gods Presided over sacrifice of human victims Moche Artisans Metalworkers, potters, weavers,

painters, etc. Face masks, animal figurines, and jewelry often plated in gold Images of daily life (of all classes) painted on ceramic pottery

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