Chapter 17: Age of Exploration - MR. OSIEJA'S CLASS

Chapter 17: Age of Exploration - MR. OSIEJA'S CLASS

Chapter 17: Age of Exploration European Exploration First Guys The First Explorers Eskimos & Aleuts (Native Americans) Japanese & Chinese Fishermen West Africans (Olmec Legend) European Vikings Thorfinn Karlsefni mapped part of North American coast

Tried to settle Newfoundland The Vikings Eric the Red (c. 960) -brought family from Norway to Iceland, then settled in Greenland Leif Eriksson (c. 1000) -landed in present-day Newfoundland

-only remained three years Motives for Exploration Economic Expansion Increased Trading Need for Asian spices Used for taste and as preservatives Desire for precious metals Rumors of large amount of gold

Religious zeal Conversion of indigenous people Gold, glory, and God Means of Exploration Advancements to travel Caravel Smaller faster Portuguese ship Able to carry large cargo

Triangular sails Used to sail against the wind Astrolabe (Greek) Travel by the stars Magnetic Compass (Chinese) Stern-Post Rudder Portolani

The word portolani comes from the Italian adjective portolano, meaning "related to ports or harbors", or "a collection of sailing directions" Quadrant Astrolabe

Lanteen Rig (or sail) Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry the Navigator Set up a school for sailing Travelled along coast of Africa Found gold 1488: Batholomeu Diaz

Sailed around Cape of Good Hope 1498: Vasco De Gama Sailed around Cape and to India Admiral Albuquerbue eventually took control of spice trade from Muslims Spanish Explorers Looked for route to Asia across Atlantic Ocean 1492: Christopher Columbus Hit Caribbean thinking it was India

Travelled back 3 more times 1500: Ferdinand Magellan First to travel around world However he died in Philippines Still given title New Lands to Explore Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Boundary line drawn for unexplored territory Portugal is given right to explore all things east of the line,

which includes Africa Spain given right to explore all things west of line, which includes Americas John Cabot Sailed for England 1497: Explored New England Coast Treaty of Tordesillas Spanish Empire

Conquest of the Aztecs 1519: Led by Hernan Cortes Attacked the capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) Started with small number of men Convinced local tribes to join him as they did not like the oppressive rule of the Aztecs

1520: Cortes takes Montezuma hostage Aztecs eventually revolt Spanish Empire Fall of the Aztecs Disease Aztecs were not used to European diseases Smallpox devastated the Aztecs More soldiers reinforced the Spaniards daily

After 4 months, the Aztecs surrendered Spanish leveled all signs of Aztecs Built new churches and roads Led to control of all Mexico Spanish Empire Conquest of Incas

Francisco Pizarro (1531) Similar to what we saw with Aztecs Small number of soldiers Used superior weapons to scare Incas

Disease would ravage population 1535: Took control of entire Incan Empire with Lima as major colony Technology: In this illustration you see both Native Americans and Colonial men at war with one another. 1. What is the major weapon being used by

either side? 2. Why do you think these two sides are fighting? 3. Which group do you believe had an advantage? Explain. 4. Who do you believe is more likely to win the battle, why? European Rivals

The Dutch Established West India Company Struggled early to maintain any power Established New Netherland in America Held a large fur trading outpost Eventually taken over by English The English Controlled most of eastern seaboard of America Miniscule compared to the Spanish Empire

The French Controlled most of present-day Canada Established a colony in New Orleans Chapter 17: Age of Exploration First Global Economic Systems What is Mercantilism? Mercantilism

Prosperity based on gold and silver Favorable balance of trade Export more than you import Developed out of established trading posts Govt willing to subsidize new industries

Taxes placed on imported goods Expansion of transportation Columbian Exchange Exchange of plants and animals between Europe and Americas The Columbian Exchange From Europe to the

Americas: Wheat Cattle Horses Pigs Sheep Smallpox Measles w w w

w w w w From the Americas to Europe: Tomatoes Potatoes Squash

Corn Tobacco Turkeys Syphilis w w w w w w w

Pros and Cons of Columbian Exchange Pros Increased economic activity in both Europe and America Increased population and food production Created new markets Cons Disease Smallpox 1492-1538: Hispanola pop. went from 250,000 to 500

1500-1630: Mexico pop. went from 25 million to 1 million Atlantic Slave Trade Triangular Trade Trading route between Europe, Africa, and America Europe had finished goods; Africa had slaves; America had raw materials Where in Africa did Slaves come from? In beginning, they were POWs from African warfare Slaves were found on the coastline of west Africa

As slave trade increased, traders moved farther inland Effects of Atlantic Slave Trade Depopulated Africa Increased warfare in Africa Destruction of societies

Abolished by French in 1790s, UK 1833, US 1860s Regions of the Slave Trade Chapter 17: The Age of Exploration Colonial Latin America Colonial Empires in Latin America Social Classes of Latin America Peninsulares

Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe Held all governmental positions Creoles People born in Latin America but of European descent Treated as second class citizen Social Classes of Latin America Mestizos Offspring of intermarriage between Native Americans and Euros

Mulattoes Offspring of intermarriage between Africans and Europeans Both Mestizos and Mulattoes considered inferior by Europeans Kept them confined to menial jobs and rarely becoming more than a merchant early on Economic Foundations How did the Spanish and Portuguese prosper? 1. Mining

Gold and silver mines Natural Resource Extraction 2. Farming Farmed single crops for profit Led to deforestation of areas 3. Encomienda System Labor system Natives had to pay taxes and provide labor Led to major declines in native populations

4. Trade Precious metals and also local crops and spices

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