Chapter 18

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 The Eighteenth Century: European States, International Wars, and Social Change Overall Trends Peace out. Die, Old Order, Die! 18th century = 1715-1789 (end of Louis XIV to French Revolution) This also is the Enlightenment. Last era of OLD ORDER based on kings, landed aristocracy, agrarian-based existence (3 estate system)

At this eras conclusion, growing secularism and rationalism leads to outbreak of French Revolution and the establishment of a NEW ORDER in Europe. Enlightened Absolutism Generally European states were ruled by a monarch typically determined by dynastic succession and divine right Aspects of this started to change into 18th century, with divine right the first casualty As ideas of natural rights, universal laws and rationalism spread, rulers often had to adjust Concept of enlightened despotism emerged as rulers became more acquainted with work of philosophes

Defining Enlightened Absolutism Like their predecessors, justified authority by utility However, certain characteristics set them apart Secular leadership Rational and reform-minded policies Harnessed Enlightenment rationality to state actions to strengthen their own power (acceleration of monarchy) In the end, many of these rulers scaled down their enlightened ideas when their power was threatened

Also called Enlightened despotism Trends in Western Europe Robert Walpole: First Prime Minister The Failure of Enlightened Despotism: France France was least successful in adopting enlightened policies Louis XIV left France with quite a legacy Young Louis regent, the Philippe II, duke of Orleans ruled France until Louis was 12

Philippe II and Cardinal Fleury enormous debt angry populace his 5-year old great-grandson Louis XV as his successor The duke was intelligent, but was also plagued by his excessive tastes Easily manipulated by aristocrats in the old parlements When he became king, Louis XV was initially helped by his minister, Cardinal Fleury, who avoided war, expanded trade and commerce and even balanced the budget! The Failure of Enlightened Despotism: France Im WEAK

Louis XV ruled alone after the death of 90 year-old Fleury in 1743 Louis was lazy, weak, and easily manipulated by ministers and mistresses Im HOT The most infamous of these mistresses was Madame de Pompadour who was both intelligent and beautiful Pompadour gained influence over Louis in both the private and the public sphere, giving advice on appointments and foreign policy The Failure of Enlightened Despotism: France Louis government was undermined by its methods of raising revenue

Maupeau and Louis XVI Crown earned money by selling offices and privileges More people purchased these privileges so fewer could be taxed! 7 Years War increased demand for funds crown tried to tax nobility and exempt bourgeoisie, but local parlements blocked this Maupeou, as chancellor, dissolves old parlements and replaces them with those loyal to the crown Louis XV dies and Louis XVI reinstates the old parlements, appeasing the privileged class Great Britain:

King and Parliament Act of Union 1707: England became Great Britain when governments of England and Scotland merged to fight War of Spanish Succession (Scots got MPs and retained Presbyterianism) King and Parliament shared power King appointed ministers Parliament made laws, levied taxes, passed the budget and indirectly influenced the king Members of Houses of Lords and Commons were privileged classes who often intermarried Corrupt elections Patronage System Pocket boroughs/rotten boroughs (until Reform Act of 1832!) Privileged bought representation; no secret ballot elections Undemocratic representation based on tiny electorate

Nearly half the members of Parliament won their seats this way in 1761 Great Britain: King and Parliament 1714, last reigning Stuart monarch, Queen Anne dies Parliaments Act of Settlement of 1701 secured succession of a Protestant, not the other Catholic Stuarts German House of Hanover, came to rule England in personage of George I George I (1714-1727) didnt even speak English! Increased power of his ministers Successor George II (1727-1760) didnt understand the English government either Increased role of cabinet system in British government Ya. I must say, George Anne

made a much hotter monarch Anne and the Large Germans Civil War? German king repulsive to some, who also feared the growing power of the businessmen and London merchants in Parliament Sought to reestablish the Stuarts under James IIs son James III (Jacobites) The Pretender launched an unsuccessful rebellion from Scotland (1715) with help of Highlanders His son, Bonnie Prince Charlie tried in 1745, ultimately failing and provoking a serious smack-down in Scotland at Culloden (1746), solidifying Parliaments hold on British government under George II and very harsh treatment for the Scottish Highlanders. Great Britain: Walpole

Robert Walpole - first Prime Minister (17211747) taking over after a financial investment scandal Englands parliamentary government was able to levy taxes effectively, so they recovered far better than France Walpole: quieta non movere (let sleeping dogs lie) Avoided unpopular issues Chose cabinet members loyal to majority and to him Avoided more taxes by avoiding war - at least until 1739 War of Jenkinss Ear (1739-42) morphed into a fullscale set of world-wide conflicts involving all of Europe collectively known as the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War. Conflicts were about 2 issues: French-British rivalry for trade, colonies and sea power AND Prussian-Austrian rivalry for territory and military power

Walpole: First PM and keeper of luscious, salon locks. Jenkinss Ear (?) OH! PUT THAT BLASTED EAR AWAY!! Captain Robert Jenkins displays his severed ear to members of the House of Commons. The Spanish allegedly removed it after capturing Jenkins ship violating

provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht. Ear it is! Im gonna hurl. Great Britain: The Pitts Growing merchant-business class wanted to pursue the wars for empire, as they would benefit directly Changing tide brought in a new prime minister, William Pitt the Elder in 1757 Under Pitt the Elder, British acquired Canada and India in Seven Years War George III, however, dismissed him in favor of Lord Bute in 1761

The Pitts: Elder, Younger, and Arm Loss of American colonies and Georges increasing power over parliament forced George to eventually make concessions Appointed William Pitt the Younger in 1783, who was popular with both the merchants and the growing industrial classes George III, however, descended into madness Parliamentary system, corrupted by interests of privileged classes, failed to be reformed Decline of the Dutch On decline Orangists vs. regional oligarchs began the civil conflict

Willie V, Wilhemina of Prussia and fam Oligarchs (Regents) rebelled (1780) against Orangist stadholder William V to get more democratic power Then, merchant-artisan-shopkeepers broke away from the oligarchs to form Patriots to increase democratic reforms and were somewhat successful Prussia interfered and crushed this group because King Frederick William II was the brother of William Vs wife, Wilhemina Showed that power on the continent had shifted away from the Dutch toward the Prussians Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe

Frederick II Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe Of the 5 major European states, 3 were located in Eastern and Central Europe Prussia Russia Austria These states came to play an increasing role in European international politics See map on following slide Europe in 1763 Prussia: Frederick William I (1713-1740)

The Soldier King Key to Prussian success: bureaucracy and military Frederick William developed highly efficient bureaucracy of civil service workers called the General Directory Supervised military, police, economic and financial affairs It had its own code, embracing the values of obedience, honor, and service to the king Frederick William kept close watch over his officials Frederick William tore what he considered "extravagant finery" off the clothes of females in the street and he used to discipline idle building workers in person. It is said that he once gave chase in the street to an escaping pickpocket. Having caught him, the King asked why he had

tried to run away. When the man replied that he was afraid of him, Frederick William hit him with his stick and roared: "Miserable wretch! You shall love me!" Rigid class system persisted: Junkers led military Military grew drastically under F.W. Using nobles as officers bound them to the king Prussia - an army with a country Remaining classes were much less important Peasants were confined to lords estates or army had few rights Middle class empowered through civil service Compulsory Primary Education (1717) Prussia: Frederick William I (1713-1740)

The Soldier King One of the Potsdam Giants Built up military Soldiers recruited from peasantry and foreign lands He recruited and even kidnapped large men to fill ranks of his beloved regiment of Potsdam Giants) Dissolved lavish court and lived frugally Royal family helped themselves to meats and beer no servants! The queen had to do the dishes! He encouraged farming, reclaimed marshes, stored grain in good times and sold it in bad times Despising non-military people and things - particularly Frenchmen, musicians, scientists and intellectuals - Frederick

William would never tire of teasing and even physically torturing the president of the Academy of Science He was never unfaithful to his wife and said there were "no such things as mistresses", only "harlots and whores. He was most likely bipolar, having sleepless bouts (mania) as well as crying fits (depression). On the day of his death, he had himself wheeled into the queens bedchamber and announced, "Get up! I am going to die today." Prussia: Frederick II - The Great (1740-1786) One of the best educated and most cultured monarchs of the 18th century Difficult childhood and strained relationship with his father Forced to awaken each morning to the firing of a cannon Beaten for wearing gloves in cold weather At 18, he was kicked, beaten, dragged along the ground by his hair and sent off by FW, bleeding and disheveled, to make an official appearance at the Polish court he ran away instead He was caught fleeing with his friend (lover?) Hans

Hermann von Katte and was forced to personally witness von Kattes execution FW so despised young Fritzs interest in the arts that he had a girl with whom Fritz had played a flute duet publically flogged Hans Hermann!!! Prussia: Frederick II (1740-1786) The Great He became king at age 28, and deemed himself first servant of the state Initially, followed beliefs of the philosophes Established a single code of laws Eliminated use of torture except in treason and murder

Granted limited freedom of speech and press Granted complete religious toleration However, he reversed his fathers policy of upward mobility through civil service, reserving high posts for nobles He also refused to free serfs as he depended on Junkers Prussia: Frederick IIs Militarism Took a great interest in the military Army grew to 200k men Unlike his predecessors, he USED his military Under Fred II, Prussia attained Silesia, Posen and West Prussia,

uniting Hohenzollern lands Took advantage of succession crisis in Austria and snatched Silesia from Maria Theresa the Hapsburg monarch This violated the Pragmatic Sanction and the issue was force vs. law Fred into EXPANSION! Frederick embroiled in 2 wars: The War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Year War permanent control of Silesia partitioning of Poland, unifying the Prussian regions After Frederick II, Prussia had clearly established itself as a major European powerhouse The Hapsburgs Austrian Empire: Maria Theresa

By the early 18th century, Austria was a formidable European power Vienna was the center of the monarchy and music Austria was home to many ethnicities, languages, religions, and cultures, but could not provide common laws and a centralized administration Maria Theresa (1740-1780) began her reign tragically, but She prepared to go to war by curbing the power of local assemblies Forced nobles and clergy to pay property taxes

directly to royal officials, not local Divided Austrian lands into 10 provinces administered directly by a royal official. Expanded army - needed to after Silesia incident! She was a devout Catholic, and a conservative - not a reformer She did prove to be one of the strongest Hapsburg rulers The Hapsburgs Austrian Empire: Joseph II Maria Theresa didnt care for the philosophes ideas, but her son, Joseph II did Joseph II (WITH MT,1765-1780; alone 17801790)

He was interested in Enlightenment ideas Stated that the state meant the greatest good for the greatest number Abolished serfdom Established new penal code - no more death penalty and all equal before the law Freedom of press Complete religious toleration and restricted the Catholic Church (Edict of Idle) Tried to impose German language for whole empire and alienated the non-German speaking nationalities - esp. Magyars After his death, Leopold and others undid his enlightened reforms. Russia: Setting the Stage for Catherines Ascent

The Russian court and aristocracy adopted French as their conversational language, so French Enlightenment ideas did influence Russia. After Peter the Great, Russian military power expanded, and Russia joined against Prussia in the Seven Years War. Peter the Great had 6 successors, all of whom were at the mercy of the palace guard. When the last them, Peter III, was murdered by them, his wife, German Princess Catherine took charge. Catherine, a Romanov by marriage, ruled from 1762 to 1796 and was the first powerful ruler post-Peter She was resourceful and court savvy, developing support in high places to engineer the murder Russia: Catherines Policies

Though German, Catherine quickly learned Russian and became Russian Orthodox after her marriage. She was practical, hearty, and boisterous--a worthy successor for Peter. She was intellectual, reading Blackstone (law) and corresponding with Voltaire and Diderot. She publicized her intention to make reforms, and worked to codify the laws, restricting torture, and increasing religious toleration. Instruction, 1767 She also began to consolidate the machinery of state. Russia: Catherine and Pugachev

Any idea of reforming serfdom was ended by Pugachevs rebellion (1773). Traditional Russians felt oppressed and alienated by aristocracy. Pugachev, a Cossack, began an insurrection--joined by Cossacks and the serfs of the Ural and Volga regions. Moscow aristocrats were terrified, but the rebels were stopped Pugachev was betrayed and captured. Catherines answer was repression, increasing the power of landlords. As in Prussia, the state came more than ever to rest on an understanding between ruler and gentry. The gentry accepted the monarchy, with its laws, officials, army and foreign policy, and received in return full authority over the peasants.

Russia: Catherines Expansionist Policies Catherines main goal was to secure the loosely organized domains from the Baltic to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the land of the Poles and Turks: WARM WATER PORTS! She defeated the Turks, but was prevented from reaching her territorial goals by balance of power politics, receiving instead a portion of Poland in the first partition. Russia did get the important port of Odessa The French Revolution gave her the opportunity to finish the partitions of Poland Many enlightened thinkers praised Russia for eliminating Poland--a nuisance, a cause of rivalry.

The partitions changed the balance of power as a whole, making eastern Europe more important. Beginning of Peters Reign End of Peters Reign End of Catherines Reign Limitations of Enlightened Despotism Catherine to Diderot on reform: You write only on paper, but I have to write on human skin, which is incomparably more irritable and ticklish. What does this mean? Joseph II, Fred II and Catherine the Great were enlightened despots, BUT only Joseph II sought radical Enlightenment changes. In the end, all three were limited by political-social restraints, and people simply werent ready for equal rights for ALL

Enlightened Despotism, in retrospect, foreshadowed an age of revolution and even signified a preliminary effort to revolutionize society by authoritative action from above. The state became more powerful, and told people that special privileges were bad. Old and established rights were brought into question Customary and common law was pushed aside by authoritative legal codes. By opposing the special powers of the church and feudal interests, the state was moving toward legal equality . Limitations of Enlightened Despotism Yet even before the French Revolution, enlightened despotism had reached as far as it

could go. Almost everywhere the result was an aristocratic, even feudal revival, and kings were again renewing ties with the Church. Enlightened despotism was the culmination of the institution of monarchy. Groups who did not benefit from reforms or who lost rights after they demanded more reforms were increasingly disgruntled Declining Powers in Europe Poland was divided by Russia, Prussia and Austria b/c it had no strong monarch to hold it together. Mediterranean Spain on the decline Portugal was the same

Austria takes over much of formerly Spanish territory. Attempts to curtail church and inquisition and French system brought by Bourbon rulers who replaced Hapsburgs there helped, but Spain failed to keep up with more modernized powers. on decline from 16th century heyday Brief resurgence under Marquis de Pombal, but nobody could replicate his leadership after Italy fragmented and divided up by larger stronger powers; Savoy emerges as a temporarily powerful Italian state, but it doesnt last. Scandinavian States Sweden and Denmark attempted to establish strong enlightened monarchies, but ultimately failed to completely subdue aristocracy. Wars and Diplomacy Wars and Diplomacy

Although the philosophes condemned war, enlightened depots and the rest of Europes political leaders seemed to disregard this. Rulers acted out of self interest, but because international relations were important in maintaining power, the concept of balance of power was of primary concern. Use of diplomacy Concept of reason of state As new powerful states emerged and jockeyed for territory, colonies and markets, their large standing armies eventually were put to use Relative peace form 1715 to 1740 gave way to the first of a series of 18th century conflicts due to the succession to the Austrian throne War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

Charles VII of the House of Wittelsbach: a break in Hapsburg hegemony Austrian Hapsburg Emperor Charles VI - no male heir Pragmatic Sanction All agreed while Charles lived; upon his death the agreement was pushed aside Fred the Great takes Silesia In the south, the ruler of South German Bavaria seized Hapsburg territory and had himself elected as the new HRE Charles VII in 1742 (his 3 year tenure as HRE marked a break in Hapsburg rule) War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

France enters into the war vs. vulnerable Austria to see what it could snatch up. Austria finds an ally with Great Britain, who feared that France would dominate continental affairs. Unfortunately, these powers had established a presence OUTSIDE Europe, and these regions went to war as well France - GB in India France - GB in North America Meanwhile in Europe, Prussia dug into Silesia and France took the Austrian Netherlands. By 1748, with no end in sight, all parties agreed to stop and by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, all occupied territories were returned - except Silesia fighting would go on later Seven Years War (1756-1763): Diplomatic Revolution Maria Theresa refused to accept loss of

Silesia and prepared for another conflict by building up her army and forming important diplomatic ties Count Wenzel von Kaunitz Count Wenzel von Kaunitz Separate Prussia from its chief ally, France Long history of Hapsburg-Bourbon rivalry to undo diplomatic revolution of 1756: the impossible happens! Old rivalries became superfluous as new ones developed:

France vs. GB for empire Austria vs. Prussia for Silesia Russia vs. Prussia for territory in central Europe Seven Years War (1756-1763): Diplomatic Revolution Marie Antoinette, age 13, in the portrait that was sent to the dauphin Louis before their marriage Westminster Convention (January, 1756) GB and Prussia meet to foil BritishAustrian alliance Prussia will protect Hanover from France if GB abandons Austria Meanwhile, von Kaunitz sent by Maria Theresa to engineer alliance with Louis XV of France Louis agrees to defensive alliance after hearing of Westminster settlement

Also, marriage of Marie Antoinette to his son Louis XVI seals deal Seven Years War (1756-1763) New Alliances: Frederick II in the Seven Years War Russia, Austria, France Prussia, Britain A military clash between these two alliances meant WORLDWIDE conflict Europe, India and North America all saw battles fought on their soil. Battle of Rossbach in Saxony

(1757) Fred II victorious Eventually, Combined Austrian, French and Russian forces wore the Prussians down Seven Years War (1756-1763) Prussian Miracle: Empress Elizabeth of Russia dies Tsar Peter III withdraws Russian forces and returns Prussian territories This leads to stalemate and desire for peace Peace of Hubertusburg (1763)

All European territories returned EXCEPT SILESIA! MT legally gains control of so-called Holy Roman Empire with the election of her husband as Emperor Francis I (and their 16 kids!) Outside Europe Elizabeth and Peter III Great War for Empire (India) GB wins control by Treaty of Paris (1763) French and Indian War (N.A.) GB wins control of Canada and land east of Mississippi by Treaty of Paris. 2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license. The Battlefields of the Seven Years War Changing Nature of Armies Professional standing armies, novel in the 17th century, were a mainstay by the 18th

Most armies doubled or tripled between 1470-1780 Structure reflected social hierarchy landed aristocrats were topranking officers (in Prussia, Junkers served mandatory terms); Middle class achieved mid-rank and commoners could not be officers Many states relied on conscription of unemployed artisans and peasant class, but they needed the agricultural laborers, so they turned to mercenaries as well. GB used more mercenaries than any other power GB and Dutch found navy to be more important and invested their efforts there War no longer fought over ideological issues like religion now it was fought with realistic concerns costs in taxes, lives, resources This changed the nature of fighting trickery more than direct

confrontation Construction of vast fortresses for supplies defeat came down to surrendering these strongholds Economic and Social Trends Population Growth By 1750, population began a steady climb upward a shift from the fluctuating tendencies seen since the Middle Ages One main reason: decline in infant mortality Trend NOT explained by healthcare improvements, but rather a more ample food supply and the end of plague outbreaks (last outbreak: 1720) Marriage and Family: Children

Use of wet nurses by middle and upper classes in early 18th century By later 18th century, attitudes toward children changed breast feeding was deemed undignified NO SEX while breastfeeding! Children no longer seen as mini-adults Toys, comfortable clothing, love, breast feeding, end of primogeniture Infanticide and suffocating accidents

Foundling homes 50-90% mortality rates Marriage and Family: Marriage Above: Coitus interruptus. Below: NO coitus interruptus. Family still at heart of social organization Still patriarchal FOR UPPER CLASSES, marriage for position Newlyweds established own households later marriage ages (27-8 men, 25-7 women) Birthrate Patterns Illegitimacy rates up 4-5 children per family typical Birth control? Coitus interruptus

Children as part of family economy for lower classes The Social Order Old estate system persisted into the 18th century Reinforced by Christianity (hierarchy) Perpetuated by most law codes (marriage laws?) Culture necessitated it (clothing?) Changes of the Enlightenment era slowly crept in, but the system was not really shaken until the French Revolution The Social Order The Peasants

Peasants comprised roughly 85% of the population Some were free, others were serf bound to land Free serfs faced difficulties Owned little or no land Tithes took crops Local aristocrats restricted hunting rights, access to flour mills, wine presses and oil presses Serfs in eastern Europe were subject to the whims of the lord The Social Order The Nobility

Nobility comprised about 2-3% of society Often ruled over peasants/serfs Many exempt from taxes or severe punishments Allowed to carry sword Often held highest military offices and/or controlled local governments Some were very rich while others had little money Those who did not have wealth found existence increasingly difficult Titles alone were less likely to maintain privilege

The Social Order The Nobility Wealthiest had a house in the city and a country estate Rooms for different activities (drawing room, dining room, study) Servants quarters Grand Tour staple for aristocratic young mens educational experience The Social Order General Trends Most people still lived in rural areas, but towns and cities were rapidly growing

Enclosure Acts forced many into urban areas to seek work Overcrowding in urban areas without proper urban planning created unsanitary conditions Disease Crime Prostitutes & Beggars 30% of population! Belief in Christian Duty to help poor faded Some enlightened thinkers turned to the state Most regarded the poor with disdain and disgust At close of 18th century, change was brewing, and major upheaval was just around the corner

Agricultural Revolution? Was there a revolution? 4 factors: Open field system abandoned Increased yield per acre crops from New World stored nutrients in roots, thus renewing soil These new crops provided fodder for livestock in winter months larger

herds! Jethro Tull hoe, seed drill Potato, maize Healthier, more abundant livestock M&Ms (meat-n-manure!) Improved climate warmer weather = longer growing seasons Agricultural Revolution? These changes and new farming techniques were best suited for large-scale farming Enclosure Acts passed by parliament closed off communal lands as landed aristocrats consolidated their property for largescale farming Destruction of traditional English

village life many small farmers forced to work as wage laborers or tenant farmers Relocation to cities to find work INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?? Early Industry Textile industry most important In earlier period, GUILDS regulated wool production in urban centers where artisans worked Many entrepreneurs cut out guild regulations (middle men) and sent their raw materials attained from New World directly to countryside as piecework putting out system Cottage industry When cotton was introduced in 18th century, great demand for the material led to new inventions

Flying shuttle for loom weaving Arkwrights water frame for yarn Mechanized looms replaced hand looms in England, many were angry (Leeds Woolen Workers Petition) Triggered Luddite movement (man vs. machine) Early Industry The flying shuttle and water frame sparked an anti-machinery movement from groups such as the Luddites, who smashed the means of mechanized production. Today, the word Luddite

refers to someone who resists new technology. DIE, MACHINE! DIE! Finance Decline in available gold and silver in 17 th century triggered crisis Paper notes issued to expand credit Bank of England (est. 1694)

Made loans, exchanges, deposits Crown borrowed from Bank, and Bank issued paper bank notes backed by the money that the crown owed it Issued government bonds that paid interest This allowed the British government to have capital to raise armies and invest in public works French National Bank failed to materialize due to mismanagement: GB has advantage! The Global Economy During 18th century, intra-European trade grew only slightly, but overseas trade boomed Main players: Britain, France Who would dominate Americas and far East?

Brits had well-populated colonies in N.A., while France had a loose network of trade centers (few permanent colonies) Both adhered to mercantilist policies to benefit motherland Competition for control of Spanish and Portuguese markets French had Bourbon connection Brits had asiento from War of Spanish Succession In the end, Britain triumphed in the war for empire Discussion Questions How did enlightenment ideas help form Enlightened Absolutes in Europe in the 18th century? What do you think are the reasons for the rise of enlightened monarchs in Central Europe? Who was Frederick II and what was his impact on the history, culture and laws of Europe? What started the Seven Years War? How did

the war progress and ultimately who won? What were some of the changes in social order in the 18th century? Web Links Louis XIV Frederick the Great Catherine the Great Maria Theresa Seven Years War Pre-enlightenment Europe

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