Chapter 18: Conflict and Absolutism

Chapter 18: Conflict and Absolutism

Chapter 18: Conflict and Absolutism Europe in Crisis Spains Conflicts Militant Catholicism King Philip II The Most Catholic King 1500: Spain expelled all Jews and Muslims Claimed Spain as Catholic Kingdom Nation chosen by God to save Catholic faith

The Netherlands Calvinists and others resented the control of Philip II 1566-1609: War breaks out William the Silent led the Catholics Eventual truce was reached for 12 year period Netherlands created own identity and established Republic Protestantism in England 1558: Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen Leader of a Protestant movement once again in England Established new Act of Supremacy

Only supreme governor of church and state Politically tried to please everyone Moderately Protestant Always sided with the weaker country in the battle between France and Spain 1588: Spanish Armada sent to invade England Completely unprepared and defeated Led to the downfall of Spanish control Country eventually went bankrupt

French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) The Huguenots French protestants 7% of population but 40-50% of nobility Seen as a threat to the Crown Henry IV (Huguenot leader) becomes king Converts to Catholicism (Why?) 1598: Edict of Nantes Made Catholicism official religion of France

Huguenots will be allowed to worship and enjoy political privileges Crises in Europe Inflation: Rapid Increase in prices Brought about by demand for land and food Economic Crises Spain Depended primarily on silver from mines Mines were depleted

Italy Decline from time of Renaissance Crises in Europe Witchcraft Trials Witchcraft culturally relevant for centuries Inquisition brought about fear of it Religiously different and frightening 100,000 brought to trial Usually single women over the age of 50

Thirty Years War (Treat of Westphalia) Began with Calvinists wanting recognition Motive Religion: Catholics vs Calvinists Political and Territorial Wanted to defeat and carve up Holy Roman Empire Conflict and Absolutism in Europe War and Revolution in England

The Stuart Dynasty James I (King of Scotland) Believed in divine right of kings; Parliament did not Religion Pushed the motives of the Anglican Church Puritans (Protestant-Calvinists) wanted church to be more Protestant Number of nobles turned Puritan Threatens his power

The Stuart Dynasty Charles I (Son of James) Took a similar stance as his father Parliament passes Petition of Rights Limits Kings ability to tax, imprison, etc. Charles ignores it Imposed more Anglican rituals Puritans move to America

Disregard for people led to war The Civil War Cavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads (Parliament) Roundheads would eventually win thanks to Cromwell Oliver Cromwell Leader of New Model Army; Military genius NMA: made up of Extreme Puritans Cromwell purges Parliament of all Royalists (Rump

Parliament) Executes Charles I in 1649 Commonwealth is born from it The Commonwealth Cromwell eventually abolishes the monarchy and the House of Lords (Upper House) Declares England a Commonwealth Over time, forced to destroy all of Parliament Creates military dictatorship Dies in 1658

The Restoration Charles II Brought to throne to continue Stuart Dynasty Parliament kept most of the power though Religion Sympathetic towards Catholics Suspended all laws against Catholics and Puritans Parliament passes Test Act Anglicans only for major offices

Converts to Catholicism on deathbed The Restoration James II (Brother of Charles II) A devout Catholic Gives many high ranking offices to Catholics Why did Parliament allow him to do so? Heir to throne a Protestant so things would go back to normal when James died James marries a Catholic and has male heir Threatens Catholic Dynasty

Leads to an overthrow of the dynasty Glorious Revolution Nobles ask William or Orange and Mary (James daughter) to come take over England Why called the Glorious Revolution? Almost no bloodshed James men desert before battle William and Mary become king and queen

Changes to England Toleration Act: Puritans public worship Destroyed idea of divine right People could have trial by jury and guns Chapter 18: Conflict and Absolutism Absolutism in Europe What is Absolutism? Absolutism

Ruler holds total power of government Associated with divine rights of king Seen in use in France, Spain, Prussia, and Russia France and Louis XIV is the greatest example France before Louis XIV

France in a period of struggle over power Both Louis XIII and Louis XIV children when given the throne Both had ministers run the country until they were of age to run the country Louis XIII had Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIV had Cardinal Mazarin France before Louis XIV Cardinal Richelieu Royal minister under Louis XIII

Strengthened the power of monarchy Huguenots became a threat in society Had political and military rights removed Allowed them to keep religious rights Set up a spy network to keep track of coups Executed anyone conspiring against the throne Louis XIV in Power Age 23: Desires to be real king (Bourbon Dynasty) Known as a fun loving person Not taken seriously

Claimed to be Sun King Source of light for all of France Key to Power Total control of central policymaking Louis XIV in Power Versailles Establishes Royal Court Serves 3 purposes 1. Personal household of king

2. Chief offices of state 3. Place where powerful people came looking for favors Louis XIV in Power Greatest Danger to Louis XIV Nobles and Royal Princes

Felt like they should play role in government Louis felt otherwise Removed them from royal council Gave them court jobs that kept them busy while not allowing them to make policies Louis XIV in Power What kind of control did Louis XIV actually have? In charge of: Foreign Policy The Church (Catholicism)

Taxes Not in charge of: Local level policies Different cities had different laws Bribed officials to get more local power Louis XIV in Power Religion Devout Catholic Wanted to maintain Catholic presence

Anti-Protestant policy Destroyed Huguenot churches Closed Huguenot schools 200,000 fled France because of it Louis XIV in Power Jean Baptiste Colbert Controller general of finances Kept France financially sound

Increased wealth through mercantilism Decreased the number of imports (Tariffs on imports) Subsidized new industries Built roads and canals for transportation Louis XIV in Power Military Standing Army of 400,000

Conducted wars during most of reign in Europe Put member of his family in charge in Spain Legacy of Louis XIV How did his reign affect France? Left country surrounded by enemies Majority of France in poverty Even though he maintained power, the common people suffered Looking down the road, this is the beginning of the movement towards the French Revolution

Emergence of Prussia Frederick William the Great Elector Established the Prussian state With limited natural boundaries, established large army Created General War Commissariat Created taxes to support army Overseer of the military Junkers (aristocrats) served as officers in the army

Austrian Empire Austrian Hapsburgs Created empire covering Austria, Hungary, and Czech Republic Had issues become an absolutist state Never had centralized government Too many different groups of people Only thing tying everyone together is service to Hapsburgs Russia Ivan IV

Became the first czar of Russia Better known as Ivan the Terrible Did many horrible deeds to expand country Peter the Great The most prominent member of Romanov family Took reign in 1689 Wanted to Westernize Russia Russia Peter the Great

Westernization Modernized the army and navy Peasants drafted for 25 year stints into army Created army of 210,000 Ordered a book of etiquette for Russia How men and women should act and dress

Wanted to have port access to the West (Baltic Sea) Government Divided country into provinces Wanted to create a police state People did not have the same feeling about service

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