Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Nutrition for Foodservice and Culinary Professionals Chapter 2 Using Dietary Recommendations, Food Guides, and Food Labels to Plan Menus 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Distinguish between dietary recommendations and food guides and give an example of a food guide. Discuss four nutrition messages that accompany MyPlate and identify how much food from each food group is allowed on a 2,000 kcalorie level using MyPlate. Identify what counts as 1 cup of vegetables or 1 cup of fruit. Give two benefits of

eating lots of vegetables and fruit, and three tips to help you eat more vegetables and fruit. List serving sizes for grains, name three whole-grain foods, and explain the benefits of whole grains and how many you should eat daily. Identify foods/beverages and serving sizes in the dairy group and give the number of cups of dairy adults need each day and the nutrients provided. Identify foods and serving sizes for 1 ounce of protein foods including lean choices and choices high in saturated fat and cholesterol, and guidelines for eating seafood. Explain the concept of empty kcalorie foods as related to MyPlate, give five examples of foods containing solid fats and/or added sugar as well as healthier options, and explain how MyPlate treats oils. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives (contd)

Discuss the two overarching concepts of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Use BMI to determine if someone is overweight or obese, explain how kcalorie imbalance can cause overweight and obesity, and list five tips to help overweight/obese individuals manage their weight. Identify foods and food components that are consumed in excessive amounts and foods/ nutrients to increase.

Identify foods high in sodium, and explain how to reduce your consumption of sodium and why it is important. Give examples of how you can replace foods high in saturated fat and/or trans fats with foods rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and why it is important to do. Define moderate alcohol consumption and give two examples of nutrients of concern in the American diet. Plan and evaluate menus using MyPlate and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans,

2010. Read and interpret information on a food label including the Nutrition Facts label, discuss the relationship between portion size on food labels and portions in MyPlate, and identify everyday objects that can help you visualize portion sizes. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction to Dietary Recommendations & Food Guides Dietary recommendations Food guides

Guidelines that discuss food groups, foods, and nutrients to eat for optimal health. Guidelines that tell us the kinds and amounts of foods to make a nutritionally adequate diet. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlateA USDA Food Guide

2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Healthy Food Guides USDA Food Patternrecommendations for what and how much to eat in MyPlate Lacto-ovo vegetarian or vegan adaptations of the USDA Food Pattern All are in Appendix C at back of textbook. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Other healthful food guides: Asian

diet emphasizes plant foods such as rice, veggies, fruits, beans, nuts, and vegetable oils. Mediterranean diet emphasizes vegetables, fruits, nuts, olive oil, and whole grains, with little dairy or meat. Individuals following Asian and Mediterranean diets tend to have less chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate: Introduction MyPlate translates

the principles of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines and other nutritional standards to assist Americans in making healthier food choices 5 Food Groups Also an allowance for oils and empty kcalories. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate: Introduction (contd) MyPlate

expects you to choose foods from the food groups that are in their most nutrient-dense formsin other words, lean or low-fat, with no added sugars, such as: Diet soda or water instead of regular soda Fat-free or low-fat milk instead of whole milk Extra-lean ground beef instead of regular 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Kcalorie Needs By Age And Activity Level 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate 2000 Kcalorie

Eating Pattern 6 ounce equivalents of grains 2.5 cups of vegetables 2 cups of fruit 3 cups of milk or equivalent 5.5 ounce equivalents of lean meat/beans 6 teaspoons of oil 258 empty kcalories 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate Nutrition Messages Balancing Kcalories Enjoy your food, but eat less.

Avoid oversized portions. Foods to Increase Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. Make at least half your grains whole grains. Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1 percent) milk. Foods to Reduce Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen mealsand choose the foods with lower numbers. Drink water instead of sugary drinks. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate: Introduction and Vegetable and Fruit Groups Five subgroups

Dark green veggies: romaine and.. Red and orange veggies: tomatoes and .. Dry beans and peas: soybeans and .. Starchy veggies: potatoes and.. Other veggies: onions, celery, and . 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate Vegetable Group Serving Sizes Vegetable recommendations are given in cups. 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetables or vegetable juice is considered as 1

cup from the vegetable group. 2 cups of raw leafy greens are considered to be 1 cup from the veggie group. Nutrients Dietary fiber helps lower risk of heart disease. Vitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy. Vitamin C helps healing and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Folate helps make new cells.

Potassium maintains healthy blood pressure. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate Fruit Group At the 2,000 kcal level, you need 2 cups of fruit: 1 cup of fruit is equal to: 1 cup of fruit or 100 percent fruit juice** cup dried fruit 1 small apple Eat whole fruit 1 large banana rather than fruit

1 large orange juice most of the time. 32 seedless grapes 1 medium pear 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Nutrition in Fruit Fruits: Naturally low in kcalories, fat, and sodium No cholesterol Important sources of vitamin C, potassium, folate, and dietary fiber 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why should you eat lots of veggies and fruits? 1. 2. 3. 4. They are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attack and stroke). Some veggies and fruits may be protective against certain types of cancer. Most are low in kcalories. Most contribute nutrients that we dont get

enough of: folate, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, vitamins A and C. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate: Grain, Dairy, and Protein Groups Grain 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Whole Grains Whole grains contain the fiber-rich bran and

the vitamin-rich germ. Examples: Whole wheat Brown rice Whole-wheat bread Wheaties Oatmeal If the bran and germ are removed, the grain is a refined or milled grain. Examples:

White flour White rice White bread Corn flakes Most baked goods 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Whole grains have more nutrients! Whole wheat flour has more... Fiber Vitamin E Vitamin B6

Magnesium Zinc Potassium than white flour. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Refined grains are enriched. By federal law, refined grain are enriched with five nutrients that are lost in processing: Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Folate

Iron 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Grains Serving Sizes At 2,000 kcal, you need 6 ounce-equivalents daily and at least half should be whole grain. 1 ounce equivalent = 1 slice bread 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal 1 small muffin cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal English muffin or hamburger roll

2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Make half of your grains whole grain! 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Nutritional Benefits of Grains B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin help the body release energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates. B vitamins also are needed for a healthy nervous system. Iron is used to carry oxygen in the blood.

Whole grains are sources of magnesium (bones) and selenium (immune system). 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Dairy Group Includes: Milk Cheese Fortified soymilk Most choices should be fat-free or low-fat Does

not include foods with little calcium such as: Cream cheese Cream Butter 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Dairy Group (contd) Includes milk, cheese, fortified soymilk Most choices should be fat-free or low-fat Does not include foods with little calcium such as cream cheese, cream, butter

Nutrients Calcium (bones and teeth) Vitamin D (bones) Vitamin A (eyes) Potassium (healthy blood pressure) Protein (build body) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 cup of milk or calcium-fortified soymilk is equal to: 1 cup yogurt 1-1/2 ounces hard cheese 1/3 cup shredded

cheese 2 ounces American cheese cup ricotta cheese 2 cups cottage cheese 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Foods in Protein Group Lean beef cuts: round steaks and roast, top loin, top sirloin, and chuck shoulder and arm roasts, extra lean ground beefat least 90 percent lean Lean pork cuts: pork loin, tenderloin, center loin, ham Boneless skinless chicken/turkey breast

Eggs Legumes: Beans, peas, and lentils Nuts and seeds Soy products 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 ounce of meat, poultry, or fish = cup cooked dry beans 1 egg 1 tablespoon of peanut butter ounce of nuts or seeds cup of tofu 2 tablespoons of hummus soy or bean burger patty

Vegetarians should count beans and peas as part of the protein group. Meat eaters should count beans and peas as part of the vegetable group. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Nutrients in Protein Group Protein B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, B6) Vitamin E Iron 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Proteins High in Saturated Fat Fatty

cuts of beef, pork, and lamb Regular ground beef (75 to 85 percent lean) Regular sausages, hot dogs, and bacon Some luncheon meats such as bologna and salami Duck Saturated fat raises bad cholesterol levels in the blood (called LDL) which then increases the risk for heart disease. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MyPlate: Empty Kcalories and Oils Empty kcalories are kcalories from solid fats

and/or added sugars that add few or no nutrients to the diet. Each kcalorie level in MyPlate has an allowance for empty kcalories. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Solid Fats and Added Sugars Solid fats Found naturally in foods such as beef or whole milk Also: Butter

Stick margarine Shortening Beef and chicken fat Hydrogenated fats Added sugars Such as white sugar or high fructose corn syrup Found in soda, cookies, candy, etc. Also added to foods or beverages at the table

2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Sources of Empty Kcalories Cakes, cookies, pastries, and donuts (contain both solid fat and added sugars) Sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks, and fruit drinks (contain added sugars) Cheese and pizza (contains solid fat) Ice cream (contains both

solid fat and added sugars) Sausages, hot dogs, bacon, and ribs (contain solid fat) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Sources of Empty Kcalories (contd) Foods with some empty calories Sweetened applesauce (contains added sugars) 75% lean ground beef (contains solid fats) Fried chicken (contains solid fats from frying and the skin)

Sugar-sweetened cereals (contain added sugars) Whole milk (contains solid fats) Foods with few or no empty calories Unsweetened applesauce 90% lean ground beef Baked chicken breast without skin Unsweetened cereals Fat-free milk 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Oils Not a food groupa 2,000 kcalorie diet allows for 6 teaspoons of oil each day. Includes vegetable oils (except palm, palm kernel, and coconut oils) and: Oils is found in olives, nuts, avocados, and seafood. Oil is used to make mayonnaise, oil-based salad dressings, and soft margarine with no trans fats. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How to count the oils you eat:

1 tablespoon vegetable oil = 3 teaspoons oil 1 tablespoon margarine = 2 teaspoons oil 1 tablespoon mayonnaise = 2 teaspoons oil 2 tablespoons Italian dressing = 2 teaspoons oil Replace solid fats with oils.

Use oils in small amounts. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Introduction and Weight Control Summarizes current nutritional knowledge Makes recommendations for healthy eating for anyone over 2 years old to: Promote health Reduce risk of chronic diseases Reduce number of people who are overweight/ obese 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 Many DGA recommendations focus on: Maintaining kcalorie balance over time to achieve and maintain a healthy weight Consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages Nutrient needs should be met primarily through eating foods. In some cases, fortified foods and supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise might be consumed in less than recommended amounts. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (contd) Categories of recommendations: 1. 2. 3. 4. Balancing kcalories to manage weight Foods and food components to reduce Foods and nutrients to increase Building healthy eating patterns 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Too much or too little?

Americans currently eat too much OR too little of: Sodium Solid fats Added sugars Refined grains Vegetables Fruits Fat-free or low-fat milk Seafood 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Body Mass Index Less

than 18.5 = underweight Between 18.5 and 24.9 = normal weight Between 25.0 and 29.9 = overweight Over 30.0 = obese 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Obesity Since 1970s In 1970s Children 611 4% obese Children 1219 6% obese Adults 15% obese 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

In 20072008 20% obese 18% obese 34% obese Kcalories in must equal kcalories out. Kcalories in: Food Beverages Kcalories

out: Physical activity Body functions To curb the obesity epidemic, Americans must burn more kcalories than they consume. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How to Control Kcalorie Intake and Manage Body Weight 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Increase intake of whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. Reduce intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Focus on the total number of kcalories consumed. Monitor food intake. Monitor kcalorie intake from alcohol. Prepare, serve, and eat smaller portions, especially those foods high in kcalories. Eat a nutrient-dense breakfast. When eating out, order a small option, share a meal, and check kcalories.

Limit screen time. Be physically activeadults need 150 minutes of moderateintensity aerobic activity each week. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Foods to Reduce and Foods to Increase Reduce Sodium Sodium AI for individuals 9 to 50 years old is 1,500 mg/day. Average intake for Americans over 2 is 3,400 mg/day. One teaspoon of salt (40 percent sodium) has 2,300 mg sodium. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Where does all the sodium/salt we eat come from? Natural sodium content of unprocessed foods: 10 percent Salt added at the table and in cooking: 5 to 10 percent Sodium/salt added to processed foods by manufacturers: 75 Too much sodium contributes to high percent

blood pressure. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Processed foods high in sodium: Pizza Processed chicken such as chicken nuggets Sausage, franks, bacon Cold cuts Many canned and frozen foods such as soups Cheese Some of these foods can be purchased or prepared to be lower in sodium.

2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. More about sodium Reducing your sodium intake over as little as 3 to 4 weeks can increase your acceptance of foods with less salt. Sodium really increases blood pressure in: African Americans Individuals with diabetes or kidney disease Individuals 51 and older 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reduce Saturated and Trans Fats

Three types of fatty acids Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated The types of fatty acids you eat are more important in influencing your risk of cardiovascular disease than is the total amount of fat in the diet. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reduce Saturated and Trans Fats (contd) Animal

fats tend to have a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (seafood being the exception). Plant foods tend to have more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil being the exceptions). Animal fats tend to be solid vegetable oils tend to be liquid. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Foods High in Solid Fats 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Solid Fats Butter

Stick Full-fat margarine Shortening Lard Beef and chicken fat Hydrogenated oils Many baked goods such as cookies, etc. cheese Whole milk Cream Ice cream

Well-marbled cuts of meats Sausages, franks, bacon Poultry skin Solid fats contain more saturated fat and/or trans fats than most vegetable oils. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reduce Saturated, Trans Fat, and Alcohol Saturated fat and trans fat both raise bad cholesterol levels in the blood (called LDL), which then increases

the risk for heart disease. Trans fat is found in some commercial baked goods, fried foods, shortenings, and margarines. Alcohol may have beneficial effects when consumed in moderation: One drink/day women Two drinks/day men 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Nutrients of Concern in American Diet 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Planning Menus Using MyPlate and the Dietary Guidelines

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Does a days menu on the average provide at least the number of servings required from each of the major food groups for a 2,000 kcal diet? Are most of the menu items nutrient dense (without added sugars or solid fat)? Does the menu have whole-grain breads and grains at each meal? Are most meat and poultry items lean?

Are fish, beans, and other meat alternates available? Does the menu including servings from each of the vegetable subgroups? 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Planning Menus Using MyPlate and the Dietary Guidelines (contd) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Do most veggies and fruits have their skins and seeds?

Are there more choices for fresh, canned, or dried fruit than fruit juices? Are low-fat or fat-free milk and other dairy choices available? Are the fruit juices 100 percent juice? Are foods (especially desserts) high in fat, sugar, and/or sodium balanced with choices lower in these nutrients? Is a soft margarine available that does not contain trans fat? Are unsweetened beverages available? 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Food Labels Required on Labels: Food name Ingredient list

Net weight Name and address of manufacturer Nutrition facts 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 59 Nutrition Facts Daily Value: A set of nutrient-intake values developed by the Food and Drug Administration that

are used as a reference for expressing nutrient content on nutrition labels. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 60 Nutrient Claims Nutrient content claims must follow legal definitions, regulated by the FDA. Claims on food labels describe the nutrient composition of a food.

Examples: Low calorie40 kcal or less Low fat3 grams or less of fat High in20 percent or more of Daily Value 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 61 Health Claims Claims on food labels that state certain foods or food substancesas part of an overall healthy dietmay reduce the risk of certain diseases.

Must be approved by FDA. Example: Diets low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure, a disease associated with many factors. (An A claim) This claim may be put on foods that meet the criteria for low sodium (140 mg sodium or less). 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 62 Ranking System for Health Claims Courtesy of USDA 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

63 Portion Size Comparisons Portion sizes in MyPlate do not always match the serving sizes on food labels. Food labels allow consumers to compare the nutrients in two products. Portion sizes in the United States have been steadily increasing. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 64

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