Chapter 2 Database Environment - Sacramento State

Chapter 2 Database Environment - Sacramento State

Chapter 2 Database Environment Agenda Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture

Database Languages Data Models Functions of DBMS Components of DBMS Teleprocessing Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture External level User's view Data gathering Conceptual level

Organization view (entity, attribute, & relationship) Constraints and security Entity-relationship diagram Normalization Internal level Physical presentation Storage, index, compression, & encryption File organization

Database Schemas Database schema (intension) & database instance (extension) External schemas (subschema) Conceptual schema (database schema) Internal schema Mapping External/conceptual mapping Conceptual/internal mapping Example

Data Independence Logical data independence Physical data independence Database Languages Data Definition Language (DDL) Structured Query Language (SQL) Data Manipulation Language (DML) Procedural DML Non-procedural DML Structured Query Language (SQL) Query-by-Example (QBE)

Fourth-Generation Language Form, report, graphics, & application generators Data Models Definition Integrated concept for describing data, relationships and constraints Types Object-based data models Record-based data models Physical data models (internal structure,

ordering, & paths) Object-Based Data Models Entity-relationship Entity, attribute, relationship Usage: documentation Object-oriented Object, class, subclass, inheritance, state (attributes), behavior (methods or actions), encapsulation, message, polymorphism Usage: building software

Record-Based Data Models Relational data model Network model Hierarchical Model Relational Data Model Terminology Relations Attributes Tuples Record relationship One-to-many relationship

Usage Ad hoc reporting Network Model CODASYL DBTG Terminology Data item & group item Record type: owner, member Set type: optional, mandatory, permanent Record relationship Many-to-many relationship

Link or pointer between set owner and set member Usage Large volume transaction processing Hierarchical Model IBM Information Management Systems Terminology Tree, general tree, & subtree Nodes, root node, parent node, and child node Segment type ( root, parent, child)

Record relationship One-to-many relationship Link or pointer between parent node and child node No many-to-many relationship Usage Large volume transaction processing Functions of a DBMS

Data storage, retrieval and update A user-accessible catalog Transaction support Concurrency control Recovery Authorization

Integrity Data independence Data communication Other Utilities Components of a DBMS

Query processor Database manager File manager DML preprocessor DDL compiler Catalog manager Components of Database Manager

Authorization control Command processor Integrity checker Query optimizer Transaction manager Scheduler Recovery manager Buffer manager

Teleprocessing - I Two-tier client-server architecture Client: user interface, business and data processing logic Database server: data validation and database access Advantage Accessing to distributed database Increasing performance and consistency

Lowering server and communication cost Supporting open systems architecture Teleprocessing - II Three-tier client-server architecture Client: user interface Application server: business and processing logic Database server: data validation and database access

Advantage Reducing client cost Software distribution Maintenance cost Balancing load Teleprocessing - III Transaction processing (TP) monitor

Transaction manager between client and server Advantage Transaction routing Distributed transaction for load balancing Points to Remember

Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture Database Languages Data Models Functions of DBMS Components of DBMS Teleprocessing Assignment Review chapters 1, 2, and appendix C Read chapters 3 & 4 (skip relational calculus 4.2) Assignment 2 Due date:

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