# Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Position, Displacement ... Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Essential idea: All waves can be described by the same sets of mathematical ideas. Detailed knowledge of one area leads to the possibility of prediction in another. Nature of science: Imagination: It is speculated that polarization had been utilized by the Vikings through their use of Iceland Spar over 1300 years ago for navigation (prior to the introduction of the magnetic compass). Scientists across Europe in the 17th19th centuries continued to contribute to wave theory by building on the theories and models proposed as our understanding developed. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Understandings:

Wavefronts and rays Amplitude and intensity Superposition Polarization Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Applications and skills: Sketching and interpreting diagrams involving wavefronts and rays Solving problems involving amplitude, intensity and the inverse square law Sketching and interpreting the superposition of pulses and waves Describing methods of polarization Sketching and interpreting diagrams illustrating polarized, reflected and transmitted beams Solving problems involving Maluss law

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Guidance: Students will be expected to calculate the resultant of two waves or pulses both graphically and algebraically Methods of polarization will be restricted to the use of polarizing filters and reflection from a non-metallic plane surface Data booklet reference: I A2 I x -2 I = I0 cos2 Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Theory of knowledge:

Wavefronts and rays are visualizations that help our understanding of reality, characteristic of modelling in the physical sciences. How does the methodology used in the natural sciences differ from the methodology used in the human sciences? How much detail does a model need to contain to accurately represent reality? Utilization: A number of modern technologies, such as LCD displays, rely on polarization for their operation Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Wavefronts and rays Consider the transverse waves shown here. The __________ are by convention

located at the ________ of the waves. A top view simplifies the drawing: Wavefronts dont have to be straight. FYI Wavefronts are perpendicular to the wave velocity. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Wavefronts and rays Wavefronts can also travel in 3D, such as the cross-section of the spherical wavefront shown here: Such a wave can come from a point source of sound or light, or even from an explosion.

Even if a wavefront is curved to begin with, as you get farther from the point source the wavefronts become more flat or planar. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Wavefronts and rays Wavefronts can also be bent by obstacles in the environment, or by the properties of the medium through which the wave passes: The animation shows flat wavefronts being focused by a lens. Oftentimes rather than drawing wavefronts we

ray draw _____, which are perpendicular to the wavefronts. FYI Rays are parallel to the wave velocity. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Wavefronts and rays Longitudinal waves also have wavefronts and rays. Instead of crests and troughs, longitudinal waves have compressions and rarefactions. Just as crests were arbitrarily chosen to be wavefronts in transverse waves,

_______________ are usually chosen as ______________ in longitudinal waves. FYI As always, rays are parallel to the wave velocity. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Amplitude and intensity _____________ is the rate energy is being transmitted per unit area and is measured in (W m-2). definition of intensity I EXAMPLE: A 200. watt speaker projects sound in a spherical wave. Find the intensity of the sound at a distance of 1.0 m and 2.0 m from the speaker. Note that whatever power is in the wavefront is spread out over a larger area as it expands. The area of a sphere of radius x is .

For m: For m: I Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Amplitude and intensity Intensity is the rate energy is being transmitted per unit area and is measured in (W m-2). = definition of intensity I Since A = 4x2 for a spherical wave, we can rewrite our intensity formula. Intensity I vs. distance x Recall that the total energy ET of a particle in SHM was ET = kxMAX2, where xMAX was the amplitude A of the oscillation.

Since P = , clearly __________so that _________. But so that the following is true: Intensity I vs. amplitude A Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving amplitude and intensity EXAMPLE: At a distance of 18.5 m from a sound source the intensity is 2.0010 -1 W m-2. (a) Find its intensity at a distance of 26.5 m. SOLUTION: We can just use I x -2 and dispense with finding the actual power as an intermediate step. Then I1 x1-2 and I2 x2-2 so that Thus Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics

Solving problems involving amplitude and intensity EXAMPLE: Continued (b) Compare the amplitudes of the sound at 18.5 m and 26.5 m. SOLUTION: We can use I A 2 and I1 and I2. Then I1 A12 and I2 A22 so that Then Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics reflective surface Interpreting diagrams involving reflection Wave _____________ occurs when a wave meets a boundary, such as a solid object, or a change in the medium, and is at least partially diverted backwards.

The angles of the rays are ______________________ _____________ which is _______________________. The relationship between incide nt ray the __________________incident normal incident and the __________ __________ reflect is reflect simple: ay r d e t reflec reflected waves

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics reflective surface reflective surface Interpreting diagrams involving reflection We can also look at the wave fronts: Observe flat or straight spherical wavefront wavefront ____________________________________________ __________________________________________.

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Interpreting diagrams involving refraction Wave ___________ occurs when a wave meets a boundary, such as a solid object, or a change in the medium ,and is at least partially allowed through the boundary. BOUN DARY REFR normal INC IDE NT

A C TE D WA VE WA VE CLEAR WATER MUDDY WATER Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Interpreting diagrams involving refraction It may help to imagine the ranks of a marching band. Obviously, the CONCRETE

cadence does not change. Thus the period and the frequency do not change. But the speed and the wavelength do change. DEEP MUD Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Interpreting diagrams involving refraction ______________the __________ and the _________ _________________.

It should be clear that the incident wave is faster than the refracted wave in this example. BOUN DARY angle of incidence incidence refraction normal CLEAR WATER angle of refraction MUDDY WATER

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Superposition constructive interference Wave ______________ is simply the _____________ more waves passing simultaneously through a medium. Superposition is also called ____________ and can be _________________________, or anything in between. Consider two in-phase pulses coming from each end of a taut rope. The amplitudes x0 of the two pulses add together, producing a momentary pulse of amplitude 2x0. 2x0 constructive x0 interference 0

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Superposition destructive interference Wave superposition is simply the addition of two or more waves passing simultaneously through a medium. Superposition is also called interference and can be constructive or destructive, or anything in between. Consider two 180 out-of-phase pulses coming from each end of a taut rope. The amplitudes x0 of the two pulses cancel, producing a momentary pulse of amplitude 0. x0 destructive 0 - x0 interference Topic 4: Waves

4.3 Wave characteristics Superposition PRACTICE: Two pulses are shown in a string approaching 1m 1m 1m -1 each other at 1 m s . Sketch diagrams to show each of the following: (a) The shape of the string at exactly t = 0.5 s later. (b) The shape of the string at exactly t = 1.0 s later. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Superposition EXAMPLE: Two waves P and Q reach the same point

at the same time, as shown in the graph. The amplitude of the resulting wave is A. 0.0 mm. B. 1.0 mm. C. 1.4 mm. D. 2.0 mm. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Superposition EXAMPLE: Fourier series are examples of the superposition principle. You can create any waveform by summing up sine waves! y 1 2

5 y = n=1 y5 = - 1 sin 5t yn 5 1 4 0 T

2T t -1 4 y3 = - 1 sin 3t -1 2 3 y2 = - 1 sin 2t y1

= - 1 sin t 1 2 y4 = - 1 sin 4t 4 Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization In _______________ the oscillations are _______________ to the direction of the propagation of the traveling wave. On the other hand, ________________ oscillate parallel to the direction of motion.

________________ can have __________________ _____________, each of which is perpendicular to the propagation, whereas longitudinal can only have a single mode. Because of these allowed modes, the phenomenon of _________________________________________. In this subtopic we will consider only one transverse wave, namely electromagnetic waves, or light. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization ______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ______________________. Note that electromagnetic

radiation consists of ____________________________ __________________________________________. FYI In this subtopic we will consider polarization in terms of the ____________, not the magnetic field. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization Sketching the electric field itself is simplified even more: B A

If we look at the ray diagram from the edge of its plane (at edge A) this is what we draw: View from Point A If we look at the ray diagram from the edge of a perpendicular plane (at edge B) this is what we draw: View from Point B Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization An oscillating electric charge produces an electromagnetic wave. For a light source such as the sun, or a glowing gas, or an incandescent filament, the charges can __________ ___ any direction, thus __________________________ _________________________________________. c

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization Unpolarized Random orientations of electric light fields in a light source constitute ___________________ light. Rather than drawing the E-fields Unpolarized along the whole length of the ray, light we can simplify our sketch by just (simplified showing the fields at a single point: view) A manmade film call ____________ can take

unpolarized light, and ___________________________ ____________________________________. Polaroid The E-fields of the _____________________ are all __________________________ and the filter light is said to be _____________. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization EXAMPLE: If unpolarized light is passed through the Polaroid film it will absorb all the rays not oriented with the film. Polaroid is not the only way to polarize light. For example, ____________________________________ ____________________________________________ ________________________. Polaroid linearlyfilm polarized

In general, the object used to polarize light unpolarized light is unpolarized called a ___________. light POLARIZER Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization EXAMPLE: This is a view of unpolarized light passing through a linear polarizer. (The light is traveling from right to left.) FYI _________________ is also called _______________.

Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization LIGHT first EXAMPLE: Two Polaroid second filters are placed in a beam filter filter of unpolarized light. Explain why when the Analyzer second filter is rotated through 90, the intensity Polarizer of the light passing through the pair decreases to zero. The first filter ________________________________. The second filter, originally oriented to allow passage,

____________________________________________. FYI The first filter is called the ____________, and the second filter is called the _____________. Observe the light intensity through two polarizing filters as the top one is rotated through 180. Which filter is the analyzer? BLACK FILTER Which filter is the polarizer?

RED FILTER Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law In general, polarizing filters are sketched with lines showing the A orientation of the E-field allowed P through: Note that the analyzer is rotated (rather than the polarizer). is the angle between the orientations of polarizer P and analyzer A. Topic 4: Waves

4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law Recall that the intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of its amplitude. Thus the intensity of the light that comes out of the analyzer is proportional to (E cos )2. E cos E Maluss law polarized light E (from polarizer) E-field allowed to

pass direction of allowed E-field (by analyzer) angle through which analyzer has been turned Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law PRACTICE: The preferred directions of two sheets of Polaroid are initially parallel. (a) Calculate the angle through which one sheet needs to be turned in order to reduce the amplitude of the observed E-field to half its original value.

(b) Calculate the effect this rotation has on the intensity. (c) Calculate the rotation angle needed to halve the intensity from its original value. SOLUTION: Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law Topic 4: Waves

4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Solving problems involving Maluss law Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization There are ways other than Polaroid film to obtain polarized light. Some EM radiation is polarized when it is produced. For example, EM waves used for television are often polarized either horizontally or vertically, depending on the arrangement of the aerials. Circularly polarized light can be

constructed from two polarized rays. Reflection of unpolarized light from a boundary between two mediums can polarize light. Transmission of polarized light through certain liquids can change the polarization angle. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization by reflection EXAMPLE: Besides a Polaroid filter, there are other ways to polarize light. One way is by reflecting light from a surface between two media where you get reflection and refraction. inc refl refr FYI

Polarization occurs parallel to the surface between the two media and varies with angle of incidence. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization by reflection Brewsters law. It turns out that _______________________________ _______________ then the ______________________ ____________________________. Brewsters law The particular angle of incidence at which this total polarization occurs is called ________________. PRACTICE: Use the simplified method to draw an unpolarized

incident ray becoming completely polarized by reflection. FYI Also, recall that inc = refl. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization optical activity A substance is termed ______________ if _________ ____________________________________________ ____________. A sugar solution is an example of such a substance. So is quartz. The angle through which the plane rotates depends on the concentration of the solution (if the substance can be

made into a solution), and the distance through which the light passes. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization uses polarimeters PRACTICE: Data for various concentrations of sugar solution have been gathered for a sample tube of fixed length. (a) Plot a suitable graph to represent the data. SOLUTION: Angle of rotation C/g cm-3

/ 5 10 15 0.30 0.20 0.10 5 10 15 20 / Concentration

C / g cm-3 0.08 0.17 0.23 Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization uses polarimeters PRACTICE: Data for various concentrations of sugar solution have been gathered for a sample tube of fixed length. (b) Find the concentration of a sugar solution having = 18. Polarimeter SOLUTION: C/g cm-3 0.30 0.20

0.10 5 10 15 20 / FYI The above apparatus is called a _____________. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization uses liquid crystal displays Liquid crystals (LC) are optically active Second Reflector

substances whose activity can be polarizer controlled by applying a potential difference across them. If there is no p.d. across the LC it Common will not be optically active. electrode Liquid If there is a p.d. crystal across the LC it will Shaped rotate the light Unpol electrode a r

i through 90. zed First l ight polarizer FYI The LCD is illuminated by ambient unpolarized light from the external environment. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization uses liquid crystal displays Reflector The light is polarized by the first Second

polarizer. polarizer If there is no p.d. it will continue through to the second polarizer at which point it will be Common completely absorbed electrode because of the cross Liquid crystal polarization. Shaped It is then reflected Unpol electrode a r

i back to the viewer z light ed First polarizer as black. FYI An LCD projector replaces the reflector with a light source. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization uses liquid crystal displays If there is a p.d. across the LC, it will Second Reflector become optically active. polarizer The LC will then rotate the polarized light from the first polarizer an additional 90.

Common This action aligns it with the electrode Liquid second polarizer, crystal which now allows it Shaped to pass through Unpol electrode a r i unhindered. zed First l ight

polarizer FYI The image received by the eye will have the shape determined by the shaped electrode. Topic 4: Waves 4.3 Wave characteristics Polarization uses stress analyzers When stressed, glass and plastics develop optical properties that are dependent on the plane of polarization. When placed between a polarizer and an analyzer, and illuminated by white light, the regions of highest stress will appear as colored lines.