Chapter 2: Reactions

Chapter 2: Reactions

AP CHEMISTRY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT 2017 MS. DRURY VIDEO A1 WHAT DID YOU SIGN UP FOR? OBJECTIVES By the end of this video you should be able to Explain the layout and grading of the AP

Chemistry Exam SUMMER ASSIGNMENT GRADE BREAKDOWN 16 videos at 5 points each = 80 pts If 8 or 10/10 on the video you earn 5 points

If 6/10 you earn 4 points If 4/10 you earn 3 points If 2/10 you earn 2 points If 0/10 but you watched and attempted the whole thing 1 point If you didnt watch it 0 points 10 points to sign up with Remind either via email or text. 10 points to bring in signed syllabus, web quest, and survey (can be printed from website if lost) in first week of classes. COLLEGE BOARD https:// apstudent.collegeboard.org/apcourse/ap-che

mistry The link above (found by google or click on link in actual ppt) gives all the information you need to know about your upcoming exam. ABOUT THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM (AP) The Advanced Placement Program has enabled millions of students to take college-level courses and earn college credit, advanced placement, or both, while still in high school. AP Exams are given each year in May. Students who earn a qualifying score

on an AP Exam are typically eligible, in college, to receive credit, placement into advanced courses, or both. Every aspect of AP course and exam development is the result of collaboration between AP teachers and college faculty. They work together to develop AP courses and exams, set scoring standards, and score the exams. College faculty review every AP teachers course syllabus. AP CHEMISTRY The AP Chemistry course provides students with a college-level foundation to support future advanced course work in chemistry. Students cultivate their understanding of

chemistry through inquiry-based investigations, as they explore topics such as: atomic structure, intermolecular forces and bonding, chemical reactions, kinetics, thermodynamics, and equilibrium. LABS This course requires that 25 percent of the instructional time engages students in lab investigations. This includes a minimum of 16 hands-on labs (at least six of which are inquiry based), and it is recommended that students keep a lab notebook throughout.

INQUIRY-BASED INVESTIGATIONS Twenty-five percent of instructional time is devoted to inquiry based laboratory investigations. Students ask questions, make observations and predictions, design experiments, analyze data, and construct arguments in a collaborative setting, where they direct and monitor their progress. RECOMMENDED PREREQUISITES

Students should have successfully completed a general high school chemistry course and Algebra II. AP CHEMISTRY COURSE CONTENT The key concepts and related content that define the AP Chemistry course and exam are organized around underlying principles called the Big Ideas. They encompass core scientific principles, theories, and processes that cut across traditional boundaries and provide a broad way of thinking about the particulate nature of matter underlying the observations students make about the physical world. The following are Big Ideas: The chemical elements are the building blocks of matter, which can be

understood in terms of the arrangements of atoms. Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them. Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons. Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions. The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter. Bonds or attractions that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in constant competition, sensi AP CHEMISTRY EXAM: 3 HOURS 15 MINUTES

Exam questions are based on learning objectives, which combine science practices with specific content. Students learn to Solve problems mathematically including symbolically; Design and describe experiments; Perform data and error analysis Explain, reason, or justify answers; and Interpret and develop conceptual models. Students have a periodic table of the elements and a formula and constants chart to use on the entire exam. In addition, students may use a scientific or graphing calculator on the free-response section. FORMAT OF ASSESSMENT Section I: Multiple Choice: 60 Questions in 1

Hour, 30 Min 50% of Exam Score Discrete items Items in sets A calculator is not permitted on Section I FORMAT OF ASSESSMENT Section II: Free Response: 7 Questions in 1 Hour, 45 Minutes 50% of Exam Score Three long- and four short-answer questions.

The seven questions ensure the assessment of the following skills: experimental design, quantitative/qualitative translation, analysis of authentic lab data and observations to identify patterns or explain phenomena, creating or analyzing atomic and molecular views to explain observations, and following a logical/analytical pathway to solve a problem. COST: $93 Your school may require you to pay a higher fee to cover proctoring and administration costs. If you are approved to take an alternate exam during the late-testing period, you

may be required to pay an additional $45 per exam late-testing fee. If you paid for an AP Exam but then decided not to take it, you may ask your AP coordinator for a refund. Local school policy determines the amount of the refund. You will probably be required to pay the $15 fee the school is charged for each unused exam. However, once you begin an exam that is, write on an exam booklet or answer sheet or play an exam CD you cannot receive a refund. If you have significant financial need, you may be eligible for a $31 College Board fee reduction per AP Exam, depending on the state in which you attend school. Most states provide federal or state funds or both to supplement the College Board fee reduction, and reduce your cost even further. Check with your AP coordinator to learn more about eligibility requirements for College Board fee reductions, state

and district subsidies, and other support that may be available. GRADE RELEASE Early July MARK YOUR CALENDARS! Monday May 7th at 8am OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Explain the layout and grading of the AP Chemistry Exam

Any Questions? Ask me on remind chat! VIDEO A2 THE STOCK SYSTEM OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Name elements and find their symbol. By the end of this video you should be able to

Name binary and ternary compounds using the stock system. Have a method to memorize the names of polyatomic ions. YOU SHOULD ALREADY BE ABLE TO If at any time in the school year you see a bullet labeled with this heading and you cant already do it you need to catch up! You can

Come to extra help early Search for videos on line Read a textbook Sign up for all honors videos on edpuzzle with code jewriva MEMORIZE Everything you must memorize by September will be marked in orange. There will be a test in September after a few days.

Any questions? Chat me on remind! BINARY COMPOUNDS Binary Compounds consist of only two of elements. To name: write the complete name of the first element. The second element should then be named, ending in -ide. NaCl sodium chloride KI potassium iodide MgCl2 magnesium chloride Ca3N2 calcium nitride

Remember: When naming, always name the positive, cation first and then the negative, anion last. PRACTICE Li3P Al2S3 SrBr2 Rb2O BaSe CsI

Lithium phosphide Aluminum sulfide Strontium bromide Rubidium oxide Cesium iodide

PROBLEM: FeCl2 and FeCl3 are different compounds but seem to have the same name. How can we name them different? FeCl2 is iron (II) chloride FeCl3 is iron (III) chloride. What do the roman numerals represent?

TRANSITION METALS AND NONMETALS Transition Metals are in the middle group of the periodic table. Nonmetals are on the right side of the staircase. They have multiple charges or oxidation

numbers and so you must show which charge you are using Memorize them in order: I II III IV V VI VII

GENERAL RULE ABOUT CHARGES First Column: +1 Second Column: +2 Third Column: +3 Fourth Column:+4 Fifth Column: -3 Sixth Column: -2 Seventh Column: -1 Eighth Column:0 Careful: This rule doesnt ALWAYS work

for cations. Find the anions charge and equalize that with the cations charge. GIVE THE NAME: -1 FeCl2 CuF -1 -2

ZnO -2 N 2 O3 SO3 PCl3 CH4 -2 -1 -1

-6/2 Iron (II) chloride Copper (I) fluride Zinc oxide Nitrogen (III) oxide Sulfur (VI) oxide Phosphorus (III) chloride Carbon (IV) hydride GIVE THE FORMULA:

+1 -1 KI Potassium iodide +2 -1 Magnesium chloride MgCl2 -2 + Al2S3 sulfide

Aluminum 3 -2 +1 H 2O Hydrogen oxide -2 +2 BaSe Barium selenide -3 +1 Cesium phosphide Cs3P

-3 +2 Strontium phosphide Sr3P2 +2 -1 Copper (II) flouride CuF2 -2 +3 Fe2Te3 Iron (III) telluride TERNARY COMPOUNDS When compounds have more than 2 elements,

it contains a polyatomic ion. AgNO3 silver nitrate CaCO3 calcium carbonate LiClO2 lithium chlorite NaOH sodium hydroxide (NH4)3PO4 ammonium phosphate TRICKS FOR MEMORIZATION: Memorize the -ates Any similar polyatomic with one more oxygen is a perate.

Any similar polyatomic with one less oxygen is a ite. Any similar polyatomic with two less oxygens is a hypoite. MEMORIZE THESE ATES NAMES, SYMBOLS, CHARGES, AND THE RULES: Acetate C2H3O2- Chromate

Bicarbonate HCO3- Dichromate Cr2O72- Bisulfate HSO4- Iodate IO3- Bromate BrO3- Nitrate NO3- Carbonate CO32-

Phosphate PO43- Chlorate ClO3- Sulfate SO42- CrO42- Note: bi means an H+ is added to your normal polyatomic. Not all oxygen atom amounts are the same. WHAT ARE THESE?

Perchlorate ClO4- IO4- periodate Remember: per means add an O, keep the same charge. WHAT ARE THESE? Chlorite

ClO2- SO32- sulfite Nitrite NO2- PO33-

phosphite Remember: ite means subtract an O, keep the same charge. WHAT ARE THESE? BrO- Hypochlorite ClOhypobromite

Remember: hypo-ite means subtract 2 O, keep the same charge. NAME THESE: K2SO4 CsNO2 SrClO3 Al(HCO3)3 RbC2H3O2 Potassium sulfate Cesium nitrite Strontium chlorate

Aluminum bicarbonate Rubidium acetate COVALENT COMPOUNDS Compounds with only nonmetals (elements on the right side of the staircase). 6 hexa7 hepta8 oct9 non10

1 mono2 di- dec- NAME OR WRITE THE FORMULA: NO H 2O PCl5 Cl2O7 Carbon tetrachloride Phosphorous tribromide

Silicon dioxide Nitrogen monoxide Dihydrogen monoxide Phosphorous pentachloride Dichlorine heptoxide CCl4 PBr3 SiO2 DIATOMIC MOLECULES Diatomic molecules are the more reactive nonmetals that react with themselves, forming

two atoms bonded together. Only these seven elements do this: Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2 OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Name binary and ternary compounds using the stock system. Have a method to memorize the names of polyatomic ions.

VIDEO A3 SOLUBILITY AND NET IONIC EQUATIONS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Understand the concept of solubility. Read chemical reactions. Balance chemical reactions. By the end of this video you should be able to Memorize solubility rules to determine which substances

dissolve in reactions Identify insoluble solid precipitates. Write net ionic equations. SOLUBILITY The ability to dissolve in water depends on many factors such as polarity (defined later), chemical nature of ions, and attractive forces. There are varying degrees of solubility. Substances that are characterized as mostly soluble will dissolve in water under most conditions- but will still

have a limit to dissolving known as saturation. Moderately soluble ions are soluble dependent on the other ion it is bonded to. Insoluble substances may not actually be INSOLUBLE, per se. They are just not visibly soluble and may only dissolve a few molecules. MEMORIZE THIS LIST OF

SOLUBLE IONS Group 1 ions: Li+ Na+ K+ Rb+ Cs+ Ammonia NH4+ Acetate C2H3O2 Nitrate NO3Note: these are all +1 or -1 ions If these are with ANY other ion, they are soluble. For the purposes of the AP Exam, all other substances are insoluble unless noted in the question. ARE THESE SOLUBLE OR INSOLUBLE? NaI

MgC2O4 K2CO3 Li2O Al(OH)3 CaCrO4 PbSO4 BaF2

AgCl Mg(ClO3)2 (NH4)2S Cs2CO3 AlPO4 RbC2H3O2

Na2SO3 Sr(NO3)2 REACTIONS Reactions in chemistry are written in the following manner: REACTANTS PRODUCTS Coefficients before compounds and elements will tell you how many of that substance reacts. Mix + 2 Eggs + 1 cup water =

Reactants Products 4Al + 3O2 Cake 2Al2O3

CONSERVATION OF MASS In a reaction, atoms and molecules cannot appear or disappear. Mass must stay constant from the beginning to the end of the reaction. H2 + O2 H2O 2 2 ___H2 + ___O2 ___ H2O BALANCING REACTIONS

3 2 ___ N2 + ____H 2 ____ NH3 4 2 ___Li + ____O2 ___Li2O BALANCING 2 __Pb(NO3)2 +__K2CrO4___PbCrO4 + ___KNO 3

6 4 4 ___C4H8 + ___O2 ___CO2 + ___H2O NET IONIC EQUATIONS Molecular Equations are frequently used to show what chemicals are mixed in a reaction, not which actually react. Net Ionic Equations

are a simplified form of molecular equations that eliminate spectator ions and shows only those species that react. NET IONIC EQUATIONS Molecular Equation: BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaCl Ionic Equation: Ba+2 + 2Cl- + 2Na+ + SO42- BaSO4 + 2Na+ + 2Cl- Net Ionic Equation:

Ba+2 + SO42- BaSO4 Why did Na+ and Cl- cancel??? TIPS: For practice, write out the ionic form, breaking down only soluble aqueous substances. Then cancel and rewrite the net ionic. Dont worry about writing the phases, although it may help to write if a substance is a solid or gas, to remind you not to ionize it.

The AP will always give reactions that have a net ionic reaction, but your exercises may not. If every substance ionizes, then the reaction does not occur. THINK How will you know if a substance is solid, aqueous, liquid, or gas? Substances are only aqueous if they are soluble and water is present. All insoluble compounds that contain metals are solids. Also, if the compound has a metal but no

water is present, it is a solid. Most compounds that do not contain metals are not soluble and will not be broken down into ions. PRACTICE 1. 2. Al(NO3)3 + NaOH 2K3PO4 + 3Ca(NO3)2

A FEW MORE TIMES FOR PERFECTION... 1. PbCl2 + LiI 2. KOH + HCl 3.

HF + Li2S OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Memorize solubility rules to determine which substances dissolve in reactions Identify insoluble solid precipitates. Write net ionic equations. VIDEO A4 ACID BASE AND REDOX REACTIONS

OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Identify properties of acids and bases and they neutralize each other. Identify elements oxidizing and reducing in a redox reaction. By the end of this video you should be able to Both of the above with ease.

ACIDS AND BASES Acids produce H+ ions in water and are also known as proton donors. Bases produce OH- ions in water and are also known as proton acceptors. Acids and bases are electrolytes because when dissolved in water, they break into ions. Some acids and bases are stronger than others due to the fact that they can ionize completely. Only break down the following strong acids and bases.

MEMORIZE STRONG ACIDS AND BASES Strong Acids: Strong Bases: HCl HI LiOH HBr NaOH HClO4

CsOH HNO3 RbOH H2SO4 Ca(OH)2 H3PO4 Ba(OH)2

KOH PROPERTIES sour taste. They turn litmus Acids have a _________ paper of _________. red_________ and have a pH range 1-7 donate Acvids __________ H+ ions to bases.

_________ taste. They turn litmus Bases have abitter paper range of _________. blue_________ and have a pH 7-14 accept Bases _________ H+ from acids. neutral is A pH of 7 exactly indicates the substance ____________.

ACIDS AND BASES Substances that can act as both acids and bases are referred to as amphoteric. Examples: H2O, HSO4-, H2PO4- When acids and bases react to form a salt and water, it is called neutralization. Example: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H20 ACID NAMES Use your polyatomic names to convert to acid names:

Binary acids ( ha nd one other element) have the prefix hydro ate becomes ic ite becomes ous ACID NAMES HCl HBr H 2S H2SO4 H2CO3 HNO2

HClO Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hyddrosulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Carbnic acid Nitrous acid Hypochlorous acid REDOX REACTIONS Redox reactions involve the reduction of one species and oxidation of another, where

electron transfer occurs. Oxidation: Loss of electron, charge increases. Reduction: gain of electron, charge reduces. Remember LEO goes GER! OXIDATION NUMBERS RULES These rules are in a hierarchical list. That means that the first rules are more important and later rules can be broken. 1. The sum of all oxidation numbers in a compound must equal zero.

2. Free elements are zero. (Na, Cl2) 3. Ion charge=oxidation numbers (Br- is -1) OXIDATION NUMBERS RULES 4. Flourine has an ox. number of -1. All other halogens are 1 if they are halides 5. Oxygen has an oxidation number of -2 in most cases, unless it is a peroxide. (Na2O2, H2O2 and other alkali metals) 6. If H is a cation its ox. # is +1 and if it is an anion it is -1. Lets try some

PRACTICE 0 Sn + -2 1 0

N2 LiF Cl + -2

2 H2S + -1 1 - + -1 1 Ca+2 + -1

3PH3 + + -2 1 5 NaBrO3 + + -2 2 6

+ + -2 4 4 2MgSO MgO + + -2 1 5 LiNO3

+ 5 +ClO-2 3 6 Cs2O2

-2 CaClO3 IDENTIFY WHICH REACTANT IS REDUCING AND WHICH REACTANT IS OXIDIZING IN EACH REACTION. 0 +1 -1 0

+1 -1 Li + NaF Na + LiF +1 -2 0 +1 -2 0 K2O + Li Li2O + K 0

0 Na reduces, Li oxidizes, F spectates Li oxides, K reduces, O is a spectator and is not involved. Na oxidizes, Cl reduces +1 -1 2Na + Cl2 NaCl +1 +5 2

LiClO3 +1 +12 LiClO 0 + O2 O Oxidizes, Cl reduces, Li spectates- it doesnt change

Why does Na always seem to ox? ARE THESE REDOX REACTIONS? +1 +3 NaClO 2 3 0 0

+1 -1 0 Yes, O ox and Cl red 2NaCl + 3O2 Yes, Li Ox and F red

+1 -1 Li + F2 LiF 0 Mg +1 +5 + -22HNO +1 -2 +1

NaOH 3 +2 +5 2 Mg(NO ) 3 2 0

+ H2 Yes, Cu ox and H red No. +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -2 + LiBr +1LiOH + NaBr TIP: Look for lone elements! OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to

Identify properties of acids and bases and they neutralize each other. Identify elements oxidizing and reducing in a redox reaction. VIDEO B1 SYNTHESIS REACTIONS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to

Identify synthesis reactions By the end of this video you should be able to Write synthesis reactions. SYNTHESIS: INVOLVES TWO OR MORE REACTANTS WHICH COMBINE TO FORM ONE COMPOUND AS A PRODUCT.

A metal can combine with a non metal to form a compound. -Lithium reacts with nitrogen: 6Li + N2 2Li3N -Sodium reacts with fluorine: 2Na + F2 2NaF Metallic oxides and water form bases (compounds ending in hydroxide (OH)). -Solid sodium oxide reacts with water: Na2O + H2O 2NaOH

-Magnesium oxide solid dissolves in water: + H2O Mg(OH)2 MgO SYNTHESI S Nonmetallic oxides and water from acids (compounds starting with the hydrogen ion). -Carbon dioxide is bubbled into water: CO2 + H2O H2CO3 -Dinitrogen pentoxide gas is dissolved into water: N2O5 + H2O 2HNO3

Metallic oxides and nonmetallic oxides combine to form a salt. -Solid sodium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide: Na2O + CO2 Na2CO3 -Solid calcium oxide is added to sulfur trioxide: CaO + SO3 CaSO4 *HINTS*: Look for single elements combining or oxides. Add all atoms together in order of the periodic table. Always reduce to empirical formulas. Watch out for diatomic elements! SYNTHESIS PRACTICE 1. Potassium oxide + water

2. Barium oxide + water SYNTHESIS PRACTICE 3. Sulfur dioxide + water 4. Dinitrogen pentoxide + water 5. Calcium + Fluorine OBJECTIVES

Now you must be able to Write synthesis reactions. VIDEO B2 DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Identify decomposition reactions By the end of this video you should be able to

Write decomposition reactions. DECOMPOSITION Decomposition reactions occur when a single reactant breaks down into multiple products. All decomposition reactions result in gas formation. The gases CO2, NH3, SO2 and O2 will be subtracted from the original reactant. Water is another common product. Solid magnesium carbonate is heated: MgCO3 CO2 + MgO

Solid magnesium chlorate is heated: Solid ammonium carbonate is heated: (NH4)2CO3 2NH3 + CO2 + H2O Sulfurous acid decomposes: H2SO3 SO2 + H2O

Carbonic acid is heated: H2CO3 CO2 + H2O Solid ammonium hydroxide is heated: NH4OH NH3 + H2O Mg(ClO3)2 3O2 + MgCl2 DECOMPOSITION

Exceptions to the rules: 1. Hydrogen peroxide solutions forms water and O2, not H2! Hydrogen peroxide solution is heated: 2H2O2 O2 + 2H2O 2. Compounds with neither of these gases break down into elements. Molten sodium chloride is electrolyzed: 2NaCl 2Na + Cl2 *HINTS*: Look for a single reactant. Subtract gas particles. Memorize exceptions. Watch out for diatomic elements! DECOMPOSITION PRACTICE

1. Strontium carbonate is heated. 2. Ammonium carbonate is heated. DECOMPOSITION PRACTICE 3. Ammonium hydroxide is heated. 4. Sulfurous acid is heated.

5. Carbonic acid is heated. OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Write decomposition reactions. VIDEO B3 SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to

Identify single replacement reactions By the end of this video you should be able to Write single replacement reactions. SINGLE REPLACEMENT Single Replacement Reactions involve an element replacing a part of the compound it is reacting with. Metals replace metals. Nonmetals replace nonmetals. However, since hydrogen forms a cation like metals, hydrogen replaces metals.

Magnesium is added to a solution of iron(III) chloride 3Mg + 2FeCl3 3MgCl2 + 2Fe Sodium is added to water 2Na + 2HOH 2NaOH + H2 SINGLE REPLACEMENT Lithium metal is added to hydrochloric acid 2Li + 2HCl 2LiCl + H2 Chlorine gas is bubbled in to a solution of potassium iodide Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I2

*HINTS*: Write water HOH so you remember to replace only one hydrogen atom. A single element should be on each side as well as a compound. Watch out for BrINClHOF! If a compound is an oxide, it is a synthesis reaction, not single replacement. SINGLE REPLACEMENT 1. Bromine gas is added to aqueous lithium iodide. 2. Hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium.

SINGLE REPLACEMENT 3. Cesium is added to water. 4. Magnesium is added to Copper (II) sulfate solution. OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Write single replacement reactions. VIDEO B4 DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS

OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Identify double replacement reactions By the end of this video you should be able to Write double replacement reactions. Practice net ionic equations. DOUBLE REPLACEMENT Double Replacement Reactions involve two compounds that

trade cations to form two new compounds. No changes in oxidation number occur. They have the general formula AX + BY AY + BX. Keep cations first in the formula. A precipitate will form. The precipitate is an insoluble solid. A solution of potassium bromide is mixed with a solution of silver nitrate KBr + AgNO3 KNO3 + AgBr *HINTS*: Always look for a driving force (precipitate = insoluble = solid). Charges dont change; check all charges and drop and swap. Keep cations (positive ions) first in the formula. GAS FORMING DR

These double replacement reactions are the same as the last set, but instead of a precipitate forming, a gas forms. This gas is the driving force in these reactions. One of the following gases must be present in order for these reactions to work: H2S, CO2, SO2, NH3. H2S is formed directly from a double replacement reaction. The other three are formed when a compound in the products breaks down: H2CO3 H2O + CO2 H2SO3 H2O + SO2 NH4OH H2O + NH3 GAS FORMING DR Solid sodium sulfite reacts with a solution of hydrochloric acid.

Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2SO3 Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + SO2 Solid potassium carbonate reacts with a solution of nitric acid. K2CO3 + 2HNO3 2KNO3 + H2CO3 K2CO3 + 2HNO3 2KNO3 + H2O + CO2 Solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium hydroxide mix. NH4Cl + NaOH NaCl + NH4OH NH4Cl + NaOH NaCl + H2O + NH3 Iron (II) sulfide solid reacts with hydrochloric acid. FeCl2 + H2S FeS + 2HCl

DOUBLE REPLACEMENT PRACTICE 1. Barium nitrate is added to lithium sulfate. 2. Aluminum acetate is added to potassium hydroxid 3. Magnesium sulfide reacts with hydrobromic acid.

NET IONIC EQUATIONS Recall: Net ionic equations are reduced reactions that show the species that actually react in the formula. All soluble reactants and products will break into ions when they dissolve in water. All the species that do not ionize are called driving forces. Species that are alike of either side of the arrow will cancel. At least one of the driving force species must be present in order for a reaction to work. Otherwise, all species would cancel out. NET IONIC EQUATIONS

All insoluble solid precipitates will not ionize. A solution of potassium bromide is mixed with a solution of silver nitrate KBr + AgNO3 KNO3 + AgBr K+ + Br- + Ag+ + NO3- K+ + NO3- + AgBr Ag+ + Br- AgBr NET IONIC EQUATIONS Gases such as O2, CO2, SO2, NH3 and H2S will not ionize. Solid sodium sulfite reacts with a solution of hydrochloric acid. Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2SO3

Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + SO2 2Na+ + SO3 -2 + 2H+ + 2Cl- 2Na+ + 2Cl- + H2O + SO2 SO3-2 + 2H+ H2O + SO2 NET IONIC EQUATIONS Water and other covalent compounds (nonmetals only) will not ionize. Solid sodium oxide reacts with water Na2O + H2O 2NaOH Na2O + H2O 2Na+ + OH- NET IONIC EQUATIONS

Weak acids will not ionize. Calcium acetate solution reacts with hydrochloric acid Ca(C2H3O2)2 + 2HCl 2HC2H3O2 + CaCl2 Ca+2 + 2C2H3O2- + 2H+ + 2Cl- 2HC2H3O2 + Ca+2 + 2Cl2C2H3O2- + 2H+ 2HC2H3O2 NET IONIC EQUATIONS All reactions will work on the exam but not in real life. Just proof: Lithium nitrate reacts with sodium chloride LiNO3 + NaCl LiCl + NaNO3 Li+ + NO3- + Na+ + Cl- Li+ + Cl- + Na+ + NO3EVERYTHING CANCELS!

*HINTS*: Net ionic equations are only necessary if the species are in water. Watch out for solids, liquids and gases; they do not ionize. Check solubility rules, ions, and BrINClHOF! Memorize the 7 strong acids (HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4, H3PO4) that ionize and remember that all other compounds that start with H do not ionize. OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Write double replacement reactions. Practice net ionic equations.

VIDEO C1 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND MOLAR MASS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Explain the unit of a mole and calculate molar mass. Use significant figures to round calculations. By the end of this video you should be able to Use dimensional analysis to calculate the moles of a substance.

Use dimensional analysis to find the mass of a substance. STOICHIOMETRY The Mole represents 6.02x1023 particles such as atoms and molecules. THE MOLE = 6.02X1023

The mole is based on the fact that 12 grams of Carbon-12 has a mole of atoms. MOLAR MASS Molar Mass (aka gram formula mass or molecular mass) is the mass of one mole of a substance. Elements molar masses are reported on the

periodic table. MOLAR MASS EXAMPLES: ELEMENTS 1. What is the molar mass of iron? 2. What is the molar mass of copper? 55.85 g/mol 63.55 g/mol

MOLAR MASS EXAMPLES: COMPOUNDS 1. What is the molar mass of water? H2O = 2(1.008) + 16.00 = 18.016g/mol 2. What is the gram-formula-mass of calcium chloride? CaCl2 = 40.1 + 2(35.5) = 111.1 g/mol DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 1.

Calculate the mass of 6.70 moles of Neon. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 2. Calculate the mass of 0.023moles of NH3. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 3. Determine the number of moles in 0.567grams of Helium. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 4. Determine the number of moles in 8.0 grams of CCl4.

DA POINTERS SUMMARIZED Start with the number given as a numerator over 1. MULTIPLY by a new fraction Place a conversion with the same unit on the denominator of the new fraction. Multiply numerators, divide denominators. (maybe pause and copy all this?)

OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Use dimensional analysis to calculate the moles of a substance. Use dimensional analysis to find the mass of a substance. VIDEO C2 MOLAR VOLUME AND PARTICLES

OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Describe the unit of moles. By the end of this video you should be able to Convert between moles and molar volume of a gas using dimensional analysis. Convert between moles and number of particles of a gas using dimensional analysis.

MOLE ROAD MAP mass Gram formula mass volum e particl es

Gases at STP: use 22.4L Atoms or molecules : use 6.02x1023 EXAMPLES 1. Calculate the number of molecules in 4.37 moles of Lithium sulfide.

2. Calculate the number of atoms in question 1. EXAMPLES 3. What is the volume of 7.89 moles of He gas at STP? EXAMPLES 4. How many moles of atoms are present in 79.80 Liters of diphosphorous pentoxide gas at STP? EXAMPLES

5. How many moles are present in 5.67x1024 molecules of H2O(l)? THINK Why do chemists use moles to measure substances? Why arent grams, liters and molecules enough? OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Convert between moles and molar volume of a gas using dimensional analysis.

Convert between moles and number of particles of a gas using dimensional analysis. VIDEO C3 MULTI STEP DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Use dimensional analysis to covert to and from moles from and unit.

By the end of this video you should be able to Use dimensional analysis to convert between grams, volume, and particles in a multi step process. EXAMPLES 1. Calculate the volume of 13.80 grams of Ar gas at STP. EXAMPLES 2. Calculate the mass of 2.5L of oxygen gas at

STP. EXAMPLES 3. Calculate the number of atoms of P in 120.0 grams of P2O5. REACTIONS Many AP questions will give you information about a reactant used in a reaction and ask you about the product formed. Use the balanced equation to create a mole ratio to convert between moles of substances.

EXAMPLES 4. Water decomposes into its elements when electrified at high voltages. If 24.0 grams of water is completely decomposed, how many grams of oxygen will be produced? EXAMPLES 5. Lithium and magnesium chloride react according to the equation below. Calculate the number of atoms of magnesium that form when 2.50 moles of lithium are used. Li + MgCl2 LiCl + Mg

OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Use dimensional analysis to convert between grams, volume, and particles in a multi step process. VIDEO C4 THEORETICAL AND PERCENT YIELD OBJECTIVES You should already be able to

Use dimensional analysis to convert units. By the end of this video you should be able to Identify the limiting reactant in a reaction. Calculate percent yield from theoretical yield. LIMITING REAGENTS 1. How many Given: 20

11 36 sandwiches can I make if I used all of the bread with unlimited other resources? 2. How many

1 sandwich = 2 +1 +3 sandwiches can I make if I used all of the cheese with unlimited other resources?

LIMITING REAGENTS Given: 20 11 36 4. How many sandwiches can I make if I used only what is given?

1 sandwich = 2 +1 3. How many sandwiches can I make if I used all of the ham with unlimited other resources? +3

5. What ingredient was the limiter? Why? LIMITING REAGENTS EXAMPLES 1. S + 3F2 SF6 Suppose you have 4 moles of sulfur and 2 moles of fluorine, which is the limiter and which is in excess? How many moles of SF6 can be produced? 4S produces 4 SF6 2F2 produces 0.6 moles of SF6 (F2 Limiter!)

LIMITING REAGENTS EXAMPLES 2. 2NH3 + CO2 (NH2)2CO + H2O If 637.2 grams of ammonia react with 1142 grams of carbon dioxide, find the limiter and the amount of urea produced. LIMITING REAGENTS EXAMPLES 3. In question 2, how much of the excess is left over after the reaction goes to completion? LIMITING REAGENTS EXAMPLES

4. 5Ca + V2O5 5CaO + 2V 1.96x103 grams of calcium react with 1.54x 103 grams of V2O5. Find the limiter and the amount of V produced. 5. If 803 grams of V are actually made calculate the percent yield. OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Identify the limiting reactant in a reaction. Calculate percent yield from theoretical yield.

VIDEO D1 COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Identify combustion reactions. Identify hydrocarbons. Use dimensional analysis to convert units. By the end of this video you should be able to Find the formula of hydrocarbons burned

during combustion. ORGANIC VERSUS HYDROCARBON Organic molecules must have the element C. Hydrocarbons can only have the elements H and C. Therefore hydrocarbons are organic but not all organic compounds are hydrocarbons: CH4 is a hydrocarbon and is organic CCl4 is organic but not a hydrocarbon

O2 is neither organic nor a hydrocarbon ORGANIC MOLECULES Found in fossil fuels, plants and animals. Examples include gasoline, oil, kerosene, butane, propane COMBUSTION An organic compound is burned in the presence of oxygen to form CO2 and H2O only. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H20

THE MOLECULAR FORMULA OF A HYDROCARBON IS TO BE DETERMINED BY ANALYZING ITS COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND INVESTIGATING ITS PROPERTIES. (a)The hydrocarbon burns completely, producing 7.2 grams of water and 8.96 liters of CO2 at standard conditions. What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon? THE MOLAR MASS OF THE

COMPOUND EQUALS 42G/MOL. WHAT IS THE MOLECULAR FORMULA? CALCULATE THE MASS IN GRAMS OF O2 REQUIRED FOR THE COMPLETE COMBUSTION OF THE SAMPLE OF THE HYDROCARBON DESCRIBED IN PARTS (A) AND (B). OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Find the formula of hydrocarbons burned

during combustion. VIDEO D2 EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS OBJECTIVES You should already be able to Identify empirical and molecular formulas. Calculate percent composition. By the end of this video you should be able to

Calculate empirical and molecular formulas from percent composition. PERCENT COMPOSITION % By mass: mass part x 100 total mass 1. Find the % by mass of H in phosphoric acid. H3PO4 3(1.0) x 100 3(1.0)+32.1+4(16.0)

= 3.02% EXAMPLE 2 Find the percent by mass of Ca in Ca(OH)2. 40.0 x 100 40.0+2(16.0)+2(1.0) = 54.1% EXAMPLE 3 A sample of a substance containing only magnesium and chlorine was tested in the

laboratory and found to be composed of 74.5% chlorine by mass. If the total mass of the sample was 190.2 grams, what is the mass of the chlorine? 0.745 (190.2) = 141.7 grams EMPIRICAL FORMULAS Empirical formula refers to any molecular formula in its reduced form. Are these empirical? If not, reduce them: 1. 2.

3. 4. C4H8 C6H12O6 N3O6 Na2(OH)2 1.CH2 2.CH2O 3.NO2 4.NaOH

MOLECULAR FORMULAS Molecular Formulas are some multiple of the empirical formula. If the empirical formula is CH4 a molecular formula could be CH4, C2H8, C3H12 etc. A compound whose empirical formula is NH3 has a mass of 34 g/mol. What is the molecular formula? NH3 = 17.0 g/mol 2NH3 = N2H6 34/17 = 2

STEPS: Find the mass of the empirical formula. Divide the mass given by the empirical mass. Distribute your answer through the empirical formula. If a compound has a mass of 45 g/mol and an empirical formula of CH3, what is the molecular formula? CH3 = 15 g/mol 45/15 = 3 3CH3 = C3H9

Copy CALCULATING EMPIRICAL FORMULAS FROM PERCENT COMPOSITION Rules: 1. 2. 3.

4. Convert the % to grams, assuming the total mass of the sample is 100 grams. Convert mass to moles, using atomic masses. Divide each elements moles by the smallest number of moles. Find a whole number

ratio. Find the empirical formula of a compound with 40.92% C, 4.58% H and 54.50% O by mass. 40.92g C, 4.58g H, 54.50g O 40.92/12 = 3.40 moles C 4.58/ 1 = 4.58

moles H C, 1.5 mole H, 1 mole 54.50/16 1 mole O= 3.4o moles O C2H3O2 EXAMPLE 1 A sample of nitrogen and oxygen contains 1.52 g N and 3.47g O and a molar mass of about 90 grams. Find the empirical and molecular formulas.

EXAMPLE 2 Find the empirical and molecular formula of a 30 gram sample with 6.44 grams of Boron and 1.803 grams of hydrogen. EXAMPLE 3 A sample of a compound contains 47.0% silicon and the rest is oxygen. If the total mass is 180 grams, what is a possible set of empirical molecular formulas of the compound? a. SiO2 and SiO b. Si4O4 and SiO c. Si2O4 and SiO2

d. Si3O6 and SiO2 OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Calculate empirical and molecular formulas from percent composition. VIDEO D3 CONCENTRATION OBJECTIVES You should already be able to

Define concentrated and dilute solutions. Calculate the molarity of a solution. By the end of this video you should be able to Calculate molarity and dilutions. Explain dilution steps. SOLUTIONS Solutions are homogeneous physical mixtures of two or more pure substances. They should be transparent and pass through a filter.

In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent. Solute: The minor part, get dissolved. Solvent: The major part, does the dissolving. Water is a universal solvent. SOLUTIONS Aqueous solutions have a water solvent. The solute can change phase in order to dissolve.

Solids and gases can be solutions too like air and alloys (steel, brass, jewelry). CONCENTRATION Concentrated solutions contain large amounts of solutes dissolved in the solvent. Dilute solutions contain small amounts of solutes

dissolved in solvent. Which is concentrated? MOLARITY The amount of solute (dissolvable substance) in a solvent (does the dissolving like water) is known as concentration and can be represented many ways. Molarity is the moles of solute per liter of solution. Find this on your reference tables!

The units for molarity are mol/L or mol.L-1 or just M. If you dont know what this means, maybe write a note to ask me in class MOLARITY (M) mol of solute M= L of solution

Because volume is temperature dependent, molarity can change with temperature. EXAMPLES CAN BE DONE WITHOUT A CALCULATOR! 1. If 3.0 moles of NaCl are dissolved in 6.0L of water, what is the molarity? 3moles/6L = 0.50M 2. If 29 grams of NaCl are dissolved in one liter of water, what is the molarity?

29g/58g = 0.50moles 0.5moles/1L = 0.50M EXAMPLES MAY NEED A CALCULATOR OR CAN BE ESTIMATED 3. If 100. grams of KF are dissolved in 300.ml of water, what is the molarity? 100g/58.1g =1.72mol 1.72mol/.300L = 5.70M 4. Calculate the volume needed to create a 2.0M solution with 3.5 moles of Li2O.

2.0M=3.5mol/x X = 1.8L THINK If the glass of iced tea I made is too strong for you, what could you do to make it weaker? This process is known as dilution. It is very important in chemistry because we often purchase large quantities of highly

concentrated chemicals. In order to use the chemicals in class, for labs, teachers must dilute the chemicals so they arent as dangerous. DILUTIONS A dilution is a procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated (or stock) solution. Use the formula: M1V1 = M2V2 Not on the reference tables! CALCULATIONS 1.

2. 240mL of a 3.5M solution is diluted to 300 mL of solution. Calculate the new molarity. 3.5(240) = x(300) 2.8M 7.8L of 2.0M solution is diluted by the addition of 10.0L of water. Calculate the

new2.0(7.8) molarity. = 0.88M x(17.8) CALCULATIONS 3. What volume of 9.3M H2SO4 is needed to obtain 450mL of 2.0M H2SO4? 4.

9.3(x) = 2.0(450) 97mL What always happens to the molarity M decreases when water is added? What would you have to do in order to have the molarity increase? Increase moles or evaporate

water DILUTIONS 1. A lab calls for 100mL of 3.0M HCl per pair of students. The stock room has a large amount of 12.0M HCl and 1.0M HCl. Which acid will you use to set up the lab? 2. If the classroom has 26 students, explain how to create enough 3.0M acid for the lab. Use calculations to support your answer. LIMITERS WITH MOLARITY 2HCl + Ca(OH)2 2H2O + CaCl2

If 250.mL of 5.00M HCl is reacted with 300.mL of 4.50M Ca(OH)2 according to the equation above, what is the limiting reactant and how many moles of CaCl2 are produced when the product is evaporated to dryness? Write this! WHAT YOU NEED TO SAY If a question asks you how to dilute a solution make sure you mention Measure the amount of water needed using a pipet (it is pretty accurate and if not use the cylinder). Place into the volumetric

flask (most accurate!!!) Start with the highest molarity of solute: Measure the concentrated solution with the pipet (or cylinder). Always add the acid to the water (the acid is more dense and will sink to the bottom resulting in less splashing and can be added slowly to reduced the amount of heat generated at a time). Add small drops of water using a dropper until the solutions meniscus reaches the mark on the flask.

OBJECTIVES Now you must be able to Calculate molarity and dilutions. Explain dilution steps. VIDEO D4 PREPARE FOR SCHOOL FOR SEPTEMBER: Be prepared to recite solubility rules, strong acids and bases, and polyatomic with naming compounds.

You should be able to identify organic compounds; hydrocarbons; acids; bases; redox, neutralization, synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement reactions; as well as all element names (not on PT! ). You should be able to calculate mole calculations, formulas, balance reactions, concentrations, and percent. SUMMER ASSIGNMENT GRADE BREAKDOWN 16 videos (including this) at 5 points each = 80 pts

If 8 or 10/10 on the video you earn 5 points If 6/10 you earn 4 points If 4/10 you earn 3 points If 2/10 you earn 2 points If 0/10 but you watched and attempted the whole thing 1 point If you didnt watch it 0 points

10 points to sign up with Remind either via email or text. 10 points to bring in signed syllabus, web quest, and survey (can be printed from website if lost) in first week of classes. GRADING POLICY FROM SYLLABUS Quizzes and Tests: (60%) Two cumulative exams will be administered every quarter. This is already twice the amount normal colleges have in a semester, which allows for wiggle room at our level. The tests will resemble the AP Exam with both multiple choice and short answer questions. Missed tests must be made up within two class days; otherwise the grade becomes a zero. There are no test corrections for points back, bonus points, or

re-tests. These need to be authentic exams to represent pure knowledge of the content. Quizzes will be given multiple times a week and will review current subtopics. They may or may not be announced ahead of time. Often the quizzes are questions from the homework and worksheets done in class. Make sure to study consistently. Quizzes will not be made up if you are absent. Instead, the top 10 quizzes out of all the quizzes will be counted; so missing quizzes can be dropped. If there are no missing quizzes, the highest grades will be counted, lower grade will be dropped. GRADING POLICY FROM SYLLABUS

Homework/Classwork and Participation: (25%) Homework handouts are due at the beginning of class on the date listed on the schedule. Late handout homework will only be accepted due to absence on the day it is due (it must be submitted the next day). Video homework is due online by 12:00pm on the night listed on your schedule. Any other late or incomplete homework assignments and videos cannot be made up for credit. Homework will greatly affect performances on the exams. I encourage students to start assignments early and bring in questions after school, or email me/chat me with questions, before the assignment is due. In addition, class credit depends on any notebook checks, attendance, punctuality, and participation. Students will also lose points if

they are caught eating or drinking (except bottled water), late without a pass, cutting class, or not participating. GRADING POLICY FROM SYLLABUS Labs: (15%) Every AP lab will include pre-lab, data, error analysis, and answers to the questions/calculations. The pre-lab should be completed before the lab is performed, which includes the purpose, a possible video, and pre-lab answers. Pre-labs may be checked and can affect your lab grade. Late labs will only be accepted if you are absent on the day it is due (it must be submitted the next day). If a lab is marked incomplete, rewrite and resubmit the lab within two days or the grade will

remain a zero. Make up labs must be completed within one week of the original lab date. Failure to complete the make up by that week will result in a zero for the lab. Colleges may ask to see what lab work a student has completed during AP chemistry. Therefore, students are encouraged to save their lab reports when they are handed back. Finally, if a student is conducting unsafe lab practices they may be asked to sit out for the lab exercise and they will receive a zero for the assignment. SUPPLIES Pencils and blue or black pens three ring binder with loose leaf paper for notes and handouts (additional folders may

be good too) scientific or graphing calculator (preferably graphing and may be taken on loan from the math department).

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