Chapter 7: CIVIL WAR ERA The 1. 2. 3. Who led the struggle for the rights of women and abolition in Pennsylvania? What role did Pennsylvania play in the Civil War? What changes took place in Pennsylvania after the Civil War? Lesson 1: Abolition &
Equal Rights Who led the struggle for the rights of women and abolition in Pennsylvania? Read Aloud Francis Ellen Watkins Harper was an African American poet who lived in Philadelphia in 1854. She opposed slavery and worked for the rights of women. In one of her poems, she wrote about LUCRETIA MOTT, who started the FEMALE ANTISLAVERY SOCIETY of
Philadelphia in 1833. Never let it be said that we forgot, the women who stood with Lucretia Mott. The women faithful, true, and brave; Who came to the rescue of the slave. The Big Picture As we learned in Chapter 4, some early QUAKERS had been slave traders. Yet other QUAKERS were
among the first people in favor of ABOLITION. ABOLITION is the ending of slavery. ABOLITIONISTS were members of other religious groups as well. As a result of their efforts, Pennsylvania became one of the first states to make slavery against the law in 1780. Other states in the NORTH soon followed. The Big Picture Many AFRICAN AMERICANS who escaped to the NORTH worked to end slavery.
They described how their children were sold and taken away forever. They also told about being whipped and put in chains. These stories angered black and white PENNSYLVANIANS alike. They worked to bring about an end to slavery in the UNITED STATES. The Need for Change LUCRETIA MOTT was a PHILADELPHIA QUAKER.
She and other PENNSYLVANIANS wanted many changes in our state. Two of the most important changes were EDUCATION and the RIGHTS of WOMEN. Education Few children went to school regularly in the 1800s. In the cities, parents who had enough
money sent their children to private schools. In rural areas, neighbors sometimes got together to hire teachers. Classes were held in homes or in small school buildings built by parents. In the 1820s, AFRICAN AMERICANS in PHILADELPHIA opened schools for black children. Only a few other schools, such as those run by QUAKERS, allowed all students to attend.
Education In 1834, PENNSYLVANIANS began paying for public schools with taxes. The schools were free and open to all children, both black and white. THADDEUS STEVENS, a lawmaker from GETTYSBURG, said, the blessing of education shall be carried home to the poorest child. Public schools usually had just one room and one teacher.
Rights for Women Women in the PENNSYLVANIA COLONY had few rights. This was still true in the early 1800s. A married women could not own property. If she had a job, her husband could demand how much
she was paid. Even the children in a family belonged to the husband. Women who worked outside the home usually held lowpaying jobs such as servants or factory workers. Rights for Women LUCRETIA MOTT and other women worked hard to make their lives better. Some women began to study and train for jobs that only men had held. In 1850, the WOMENS MEDICAL COLLEGE of PENNSYLVANIA was opened in PHILADELPHIA. It was the first medical college in the UNITED
STATES for women. Lesson 1: Abolition & Equal Rights Who led the struggle for the rights of women and abolition in Pennsylvania? The Underground Railroad In the 1840s, an enslaved woman named
HARRIET TUBMAN escaped to Pennsylvania. There, she began to help other abolitionists on the UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. The UNDERGROUND RAILROAD was a system of secret routes that those escaping slavery followed to freedom. Many routes went on to CANADA. The Underground Railroad UNDERGROUND RAILROAD workers used
a secret code. Men and women who helped enslaved people escape were called, CONDUCTORS. Enslaved PASSENGERS were led by CONDUCTORS from one STATION, or hiding place, to another. The Underground Railroad Pennsylvania
was an important part of the UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. QUAKERS in PA, for example, became well known for their many hiding places. These hiding places included a cave and an island in the middle of the BEAVER RIVER. The Underground Railroad HARRIET TUBMAN and other ABOLITIONISTS helped people
escape from slavery. Between 1830 and 1860, more than 9,000 slaves escaped through PHILADELPHIA. How did Harry Box Brown get his nickname??? How did HARRY BOX BROWN get his nickname? One enslaved African American, HENRY BROWN, had himself mailed in a large wooden box from RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, to PHILADELPHIA.
When the crate was opened, he stood up and cried, Great God, am I a free man? HENRY BROWN gained his freedom and a new nickname. For the rest of his life he was known as BOX BROWN. Why Does This Matter? By the 1850s, many Pennsylvanians were fighting for better education, womens rights, and an end to slavery. Our state became an important part of the UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.
Yet the issue of slavery began to divide the people of the United States. In the next lesson, we will learn about how these differences led to a terrible war. Summing It All Up In the 1800s, Pennsylvanians worked to improve education and the rights of women and to end slavery. Abolitionists helped many enslaved African
Americans escape to freedom on the Underground Railroad.
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