CHAPTER 2 WHO IS JESUS CHRIST? Incarnation: a distinctive sign of the Christian faith Essential Christian dogma Truth either divinely revealed or connected with revelation which the Church teaches is binding on all Christian people to accept Jesus Christ, the Son of God, assumed a human nature in order to accomplish our salvation in it (CC, 461) Word of God took on human flesh from his mother, Mary, by the power of the Holy Spirit Christians believe that Jesus is fully God and fully human
Scriptural Background for the Incarnation Luke: Annunciation (Gabriels announcement to Mary; Name the child Jesus which means Yahweh is salvation) Elizabeth conceived a child in her old age Marys YES: simple, humble response to allow Gods divine plan of salvation to move forward Matthew: Nativity (Birth of Jesus 9 months after the Annunciation) Birth in Bethlehem (Predicted by Micah 5:1)
Role of Joseph: Not much is known in the New Testament (No words spoken) Carpenter; legal father of Jesus; descendent of King David; Nothing in the Gospels about his death Man of faith; the just Man; flexible; gentle; courageous; a man with dreams; trusting; loving John: Prologue: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. . . (John 1:1-4; 14) Word became flesh = Jesus became human Selection of the word flesh to counteract a 1st century heresy (Docetism) Docetism: Jesus only seemed to be real; If Jesus only seemed to be a man, then he only seemed to die and resurrect.
Author of Johns Gospel: Jesus was one of us Incarnation: literally means that God became flesh (Jesus is God-man) Purpose of the Incarnation To save us by reconciling us with God To reveal Gods love to us To serve as the perfect model of holiness
To allow us to share in Gods nature Learning About Jesus Personal Level: Family, teachers, retreats Tradition of the Church: Sacred Scripture, Gospels, Deposit of Faith, Magisterium Eyewitnesses: Apostles Overview of the Jesus of History Historians with proof of a real man Jesus bar Joseph: Jesus, Son of Joseph Jesus, the Carpenter (profession) Jesus of Nazareth (place of residence) Palestinian Jew born in Bethlehem
Mother named Mary Birth date: between 4-6 BC Born during the rule of King Herod in Palestine; Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus Hidden life in Nazareth in Galilee Learned trade of carpentry (Foster father, Joseph) Observed Jewish law, celebrated feasts, worshipped on the Sabbath Baptized by John the Baptist (28 AD); began his public ministry (itinerant preacher; prophet) Central Message: repentance, the coming of Gods Kingdom Performed miracles Provocative; asked people to make a clear choice to
turn from sin, accept Gods love and believe in him and his teachings His teachings threatened and angered authorities; betrayed by his follower; arrested Condemned to die by the Roman prefect, Pontius Pilate Crucified (30-33 AD) Claimed to be King of the Jews: a crime interpreted under Roman Law as sedition against the Roman Emperor, Tiberius SYNOPTIC GOSPELS Four gospels: our primary source of information about Jesus Christ
Synoptics include Matthew, Mark, Luke Matthew and Luke follow the general outline of Marks gospel in reporting the events of Jesus life Synoptics (Greek): means seen together Mark: oldest ; Matthew and Luke both improve on difficult passages Originally believed to be an abridged, later version of Mt. Matthew: well-ordered work with detailed lessons, especially in the area of Christian morality Became popular in worship services and for teaching new Christians Emphasizes the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies, linking the Old Testament and the New Testament
What Is Meant By Gospel? Oral traditions, lived faith of his own community, and other gospel sources available to him, Mark was the first to write the literary form we call gospel Good News: meaning of the word gospel Life of Jesus: Good news of Gods love for humanity Preaching about Jesus Four written versions (unique): under the inspiration of the HS
Papius (2nd century bishop): Claimed that the author of Mark was John Mark (a disciple of Peter) Date: 67-73 AD shortly before or after the destruction of the Jewish temple by the Romans (70 AD) In the 80s AD: Matthew and Luke wrote their gospels using the following sources:
1) 2) Gospel of Mark Q (German Quelle- source); probably a collection of Jesus sayings handed down M and L unique to each of them 3) Marks Unique Sources Mark M Matthew
Q Luke L The Gospel of Mark Author: John Mark, a traveling companion of Paul and Peter Anonymous author: likely a Christian (Jewish background) Written between 65-70 AD Audience: Gentile Christians who were suffering persecution Written in Rome after Neros persecution of the Christians
Written for Christians in Syria or Palestine to bolster suffering Christians during the First Jewish Revolt against Rome (66-70 AD) Author drew on oral traditions (Peters own testimony), written collections of the parables, miracle stories and other sayings of Jesus, and an outline of Jesus passion story Geographical Framework: Jesus Baptism in the Jordan (1:1-13) Jesus preaching and performing miracles in Galilee (1:14-9:50) Jesus journey to Jerusalem (10) Jesus preaching, rejection and crucifixion in Jerusalem (11:1-16:8) Matthew and Luke with the same general theme
Theme: readers to remain faithful to Jesus, the Lord, who Himself suffered and died for them Son of Man: Jesus walked the path of suffering to eternal life. So must His followers undergo suffering before they gain their eternal reward Messianic Secret: Who is this person? Will you follow Him? Gospel of Mark Part I: Mark 1:14-8:26 (Galilee) Message: Centers on the Kingdom of God at hand (Repent; Jesus is Gods agent in establishing this Kingdom) Authoritative teacher; healer and worker of miracles Apostles misunderstand who Jesus is; misunderstand His message
Prologue (Mark 1:1-13) The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God (Mark 1:1) No doubt about Jesus identity Readers knows who Jesus is; Apostles and gospel characters misinterpret and misunderstand Jesus, His teachings, and His way of the cross
Mark wants his readers to know that the good news of the Kingdom is good news simply because of Jesus. Jesus baptism by John the Baptist launches His public ministry John the Baptist in camel skin ---- Elijah (prophet); Dove (Holy Spirit) descending on Jesus You are My beloved Son; with You I am well pleased. (Mark 1:11) Synoptic gospels ambiguous about who saw the vision Perhaps only Jesus, though bystanders may have heard the voice Johns gospel (1:32-34) John the Baptist also saw the dove, convincing him that Jesus was the Son of God and enabling
him to proclaim Jesus as the Lamb of God Prologue ends with Jesus symbolic 40 day retreat in the desert (tested by Satan) Jesus represents a new Israel --- Israels 40 years of traveling in the desert Jesus the Authoritative Teacher The people were spellbound with His teaching because He taught with authority, and not like the scribes. (Mark 1:22) Very clear that Jesus taught with authority Meaning of authority (many nuances)
Right to command Someone with official power Source of reliable information Ability to gain the respect of others and influence what they do Knowledge, skill or experience worthy of respect Author: creator or originator of something Right To Command: Every teacher needs students.
Call of the First Disciples (Mark 1:16-20) Simon and Andrew/James and John (sons of Zebedee) dropped what they were doing to become fishers of men Call of Levi (tax collector), Son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:13-17) Jesus did the gathering of disciples (learners) Contrary to the custom of the day when disciples sought out a learned and spiritual leader Jesus First Major Teaching (Mark 2:1-3:6) Involves 5 conflicts or controversies A Paralytic Man Carried By His Four Friends (Mark 2:1-12) Jesus claims that He can forgive sin
Statement equal to blasphemy (Jewish point of view) Jesus shows that He had the power to forgive sin by backing up His teaching with action Call of Levi and Jesus Table Fellowship With Sinners (Mark 2:13-17) Conventional Thinking: If you associated with sinners, then you must be a sinner; Respectable and holy people would not think of socializing with outcasts According to Jesus, Gods Kingdom INCLUDES, not EXCLUDES. People who are healthy do not need a doctor; sick people do. I have come to call sinners, not the self righteous. (Mark 2:17) Question of Fasting (Mark 2:18-22) The third conflict involved Jesus not fasting according
to the strict obligations of Jewish law Mark presents Jesus as the author of a new age He is the bridegroom who is ushering in Gods Kingdom Fasting signifies penance With Jesus, it is a time to rejoice and celebrate No one pours new wine into old wineskins. Otherwise, the wine will burst the skins, and both the wine and skins are ruined. Rather, new wine is poured into fresh wineskins. (Mark 2:22)
Conflicts Four and Five Involve the Sabbath Jesus is free to interpret the meaning of eating customs on the Sabbath. Why? Jesus, the Son of Man, is Lord of the Sabbath. The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. (Mark 2:27) Jesus taught that doing good on the Sabbath is always allowed (Mark 3:4) Hardness of heart of religious authorities who did not want their authority called into question Parables of Jesus Jesus as a creative, original, influential teacher, won the respect of the people Four Parables About the Kingdom of God
(Mark 4:1-34) Kingdom of God is a mystery Parable of the seed growing by itself (Mark 4: 26-29) It grows without our knowledge of how it occurs God is in charge; In His good time, He will bring the Kingdom to fruition Parable of the Growing Seed (The Sower) (Mark 4:1-20) There is no stopping Gods Kingdom At first, there will be apparent failure in the reception to Jesus pronouncement about the Kingdom This is to be expected when sowing seeds
Good News: yield will be spectacular when it reaches the people of faith Parable of the Lamp (Mark 4:21-25) What remains hidden now will become crystal clear for all to see in the future Mustard Seed (Mark 4:30-32) Jesus ministry might seem small for now, but God will eventually bring it to fullness Kingdom starts small Will become so large that it will embrace the whole world Parables: source of great encouragement to Marks
audience who were suffering for their faith May be a struggle now, but the Kingdom will win out Parables forced listeners (crowds and disciples) to think and interpret Parables misinterpreted: Seemed like a riddle to Jesus opposition The mystery of the Kingdom of God has been granted to you. (Mark 4:11) Jesus the Healer and Miracle Worker Includes: healing miracles, exorcisms, nature miracles, a raising from the dead (Jairus daughter) Miracle stories follow a pattern Use Mark 2:1-12 Introduction: presents setting and situation Jesus is teaching in a room so crowded that the friends of the
paralyzed man lower him through a roof Display of Faith: Jesus witnesses this in the friends of the paralyzed man To forgive mans sins: angers the scribes who think that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy But that you may know the Son of Man has authority to forgive sins on earth He said to the paralytic, I say to you, pick up your mat, and go home. (Mark 2:8-11) Jesus response to the problem Jesus cures the man Result of the miracle The man got up, picked up his mat, and walked
Reaction to the miracle (Conclusion) They were all astonished and glorified God, saying, We have never seen anything like this. (Mark 2:12) Jesus miracles in Mark seen as a proclamation of the Kingdom Jesus as Gods Son successfully battling the forces of evil Jesus with power over Satan, in his unbinding the demon-possessed man from Gerasene (Mark 5: 1-20) Jesus overpowers sickness and death The woman with the blood flow and the raising of Jairus daughter (Mark 5:21-43)
Dynamis (Greek power): to describe Jesus miracles Power of God had broken into human history Salvation is taking place right now through Jesus Themes: power to forgive sin Faith with a major role; linked to repentance (turning away from sin) Types of Miracles:
Physical Healings Nature Miracles Exorcisms Raising From the Dead The Messianic Secret Mark 1:1 Jesus is the Messiah, the Christ People interpreted the coming of the Messiah in political terms Jesus idea of Messiah is radically different Mark 8:27-33: Jesus words met with confusion and
amazement Disciples slow to comprehend (Mark 8:21 Do you still not understand?) Slowness of disciples symbolized in the cure of the blind man at Bethsaida (Mark 8:22-26) Symbolic way of saying that peoples faith in Jesus was NOT total People came to believe only gradually Only the demons recognize who Jesus truly is (supernatural origins) Jesus would not let them speak (Mark 1:34) Why this secret? Jesus did not want to be a sideshow
Jesus is the Suffering Servant prophesied by Isaiah centuries before. He is the Messiah who takes up a cross, not a glittering throne. On the road to Caesarea Philippi, Jesus put the question to the apostles concerning his identity. They thought He was a prophet, John the Baptist, or Elijah. Even Peter, leader of the apostles, did not understand the true nature of Jesus messiahship. Jesus rebuked Peter and said, Get behind me, Satan. You are thinking not as God does, but as human beings do. (Mark 8:31-33) Peter judges by the wrong standards. Glory comes after Jesus
suffering and death (way to salvation) Suffering Servant Mentioned in Isaiah 52 To encourage the exiled Israelites in Babylon Redemption comes through suffering Jesus as the Suffering Servant (in the New Testament) Son of Man
Used 14 times in Mark Old Testament Connection: Jesus emphasizes his ordinary human nature (human like us) Book of Daniel: supernatural figure; Jesus will usher in the fullness of Gods Kingdom; He is the judge of all humanity The Way of Discipleship Mark challenges his readers to accept Jesus as the Messiah, but one who suffers crucifixion before he rises in glory Jesus followers must be prepared to suffer as Jesus himself suffered Mark 10:42-45 seen as the climax of the gospel Cure of Bartimaeus (Mark 10: 46-52) Instananeous If we have faith like Bartimaeus, listen to Jesus with open hearts,
and depend on Him as our savior, then we will understand the secret of His Kingdom message. The challenge of discipleship: The Rich Young Man (Mark 10:17-31)
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