Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Preparing and Serving Safe Food 2.1 Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness- is carried or transmitted to people by food. Negative impact on business:

Loss of customer sales

Loss of prestige/reputation Legal suits Increased insurance premiums Lower employee moral Employee Absenteeism Need for retraining Embarrassment Basics of Good Hygiene Bacteria: invisible, single celled organisms

that often cause disease. Humans carry bacteria transfer to food can cause illness. Work when you are healthy and practicing good hygiene can prevent many foodborne illnesses Good Personal Hygiene Bathe daily Wash hands

thoroughly Wear clean clothes No jewelry, fingernail polish, or false nails! Keep hair clean, neat, restrained in a hat or hairnet. Tips for working healthy (p81)

Stay home with fever, vomiting, sneezing and coughing Let supervisor know if you dont feel well Keep medicine away from food If you have cuts or burns:

Tell supervisor, work at non food handling Clean and bandage wounds Wear disposable gloves Work Healthy Microorganisms- living, single-celled organisms that cause spoilage and illness and can be transferred from hands and surfaces to other food and surfaces.

Handwashing Water as hot as you can stand 20 second scrub Rinse Turn water off using paper towel to touch faucets Dry thoroughly using disposable towels

What is Contamination? Contamination- when harmful things are present in food, making it unsafe to eat. Comes from microorganisms, bacteria and viruses. 2.6 Cross-contamination Cross-contamination- happens when

harmful microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another, chemicals or physical objects get into the food. 2.7 Foodborne illness outbreak- a foodborne illness that affects two or more

people who have eaten the same food. Water and Ice can harbor foodborne illness ice machines Potentially Hazardous Foods- usually moist, high protein foods that have the potential to cause a foodborne illness outbreak. Potentially Hazardous Foods Milk or milk products

Shell eggs Beef, poultry, pork, lamb, fish, shellfish and tofu Soy protein products Cooked rice, beans, potatoes or other heat treated plant foods Bacteria Bacteria (leading cause of foodborne

illness) Multiply rapidly at favorable temperatures Can produce toxins in food that poison humans Illnesses caused by bacteria are salmonella, e-coli, botulism, staphylococcal infections Viruses

Need living cells to grow and multiply Kills cells in humans and living organisms, then multiply. Usually spread by poor handwashing Do not grow in food, but are carried in food and

water Examples: Hepatitis A Viruses are found in water that is not potable. (potable water is filtered and drinkable) and raw shellfish Parasites Parasites are organisms that live inside a hots.

Trichinella is example parasite living in animals such as pigs, deer and game meat Fungi

Molds in food can cause serious illness Some molds cannot be destroyed by heat Molds that are part of cheese-making process are not a health risk blue cheese, gorgonzola, Brie Yeast needs sugar and moisture to survive. Can grow in cottage cheese and fruit juices Signs of yeast spoilage: alcohol smell, bubbles,

pink discoloration, slime Toxins Toxins are poisons Some are carried in fish ciguatera toxins and scrombroid Toxins are usually odorless May not be destroyed by freezing or cooking

Other Contaminants Chemical Contamination Occurs when foreign substances get into foods chemicals, cleaning agents Dont store chemicals in old food containers Keep chemicals in separate area away from food

Wash hands after using chemicals Physical Contamination Items physically contaminate food Fingernails, jewelry, broken glass, toothpicks that are a garnish F.A.T.T.O.M.

FATTOM- the 6 conditions bacteria needs to grow Food- bacteria loves moist, high protein foods Acidity- pH level between 4.6 and 7.5

Temperature- danger zone is 41F-135F Time- no more than 4 hours in TDZ above Oxygen- most need it, some do not to grow Moisture- thrive in moist environments 2.9 Temperature Danger Zone Bacteria grows best in a violation of Time and/or Temperature.

NO MORE THAN 4 HOURS inside the TDZ!!!! 2.10 Thermometers Infrared therm.- measures temp. using infrared technology. Thermocouples= uses a metal probe, digital readout TTI- tag attached to shipment

box/container that tells the temp. Bimetallic- most common, probe, dial reading 2.11 Reading Thermometers Insert into thickest part of meat Do not let it touch the container Hold temperature for 15 seconds

Which of the following is considered a potentially hazardous food? A.) High protein, high moisture B.) Foods with a high pH level C.) Dry, sugary foods D.) Fresh, salty foods What are signs that food has been

spoiled by yeast? A.) Blue discoloration B.) Bubbles C.) Crusty surface D.) Sticky Potable Water is Safe to drink B. Not safe to drink A.

Section 2.2 in textbook HACCP SYSTEM 2.12 HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point- specific points through a foods flow where specific action can be taken to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a food safety hazard

Was developed for NASA by the Pillsbury corporation in the 1960s to make sure food was safe for astronauts in space. Principle 1 Conduct a Hazard Analysis Look at menu items for potential Risks (a chance that a condition or set of conditions

will lead to a food safety hazard. Examples: Do recipes have potentially hazardous foods? Do employees practice good hygiene? Is food properly stored, cooked and held? Are the suppliers reputable?

2.13 CCP CCP= Critical Control Point- points where specific action can be taken to eliminate, prevent, or minimize a hazard. Principle 3 Critical Limits Critical Limit- a requirement, such as temperature, that must be met to prevent

or eliminate the hazard or to reduce it to a safe level. Examples: Wash hands

Wash, rinse, and sanitize food containers and equipment Cook food thoroughly Principal 4 Monitoring Procedures Temperatures of food on a buffet should be taken every 2 hours and recorded in a log.

Principal 5 Corrective Actions Examples: Reheating food to correct temperature Rejecting a shipment of food Principal 6 Verification Procedures Check to see if the HACCP system in

place is working. Avoid Dry Labs- when someone enters a temperature in the record or log book without actually taking the measurement of the temperature. Principle 7: Record Keeping/Documentation Very valuable if a foodborne illness should

occur. Examples: Keep HACCP recipes up to date Monitor temps regularly Use bound notebooks and written logs

What does a HACCP flowchart show? A.) Specific job tasks of employees B.) Corrective actions to be taken C.) Flow of food through an establishment D.) Key food preparation skills Which of the following is NOT a way to identify hazards:

A.) Measure temperatures and test food B.) Observe employees in action C.) Keep a personal food diary D.) Study your recipes A critical control point is the point in a recipe A.) when ingredients are added B.) Where measures can be applied to prevent hazards

C.) Where food is tasted D.) When chemically contaminated food is found A Critical Control Point is the point in a recipe: A. B. C. D.

When ingredients are added Where measures can be applied to prevent hazards Where food is tasted When chemically contaminated food is found Which of the following is NOT a way to identify hazards:

Measure temperatures and test food Observe employees in action Keep a personal food diary Study your recipes What does a HACCP flowchart show? Specific job tasks of employees B. Corrective actions to be taken C. Flow of food through an establishment

D. Key food preparation skills A. 2.3 Flow of Food Flow of Food- the route food takes on its way to being served Flowchart for Clam Chowder

Exhibit 2.22 page 103 How many CCPs are in the HACCP system for this particular recipe? 5 Receiving Food service establishments have the right to refuse a food shipment in order to

avoid potentially hazardous foods. Canned Goods Damaged cans risk Botulism, a deadly bacteria found in improperly canned foods. Receiving Dry Goods Keep receiving area clean, pest free and

well lit. Schedule deliveries during non-busy hours only. FIFO FIFO (first in, first out)- method of stock rotation and storage that uses older items before new ones.

Storage Temperatures Dry temperature storage is 50F- 70F with Humidity kept between 50 to 60 percent. Thawing Food In refrigerator- thaw raw food on shelves

UNDER cooked foods, meats on the bottom. Running Water- avoid splashing water on other food, sanitize sink afterwards. Microwave- only if they are cooked right away. In cooking- good for burgers and shrimp Internal Cooking Temps. Microwave- let

food stand 2 minutes after cooking Highlight Poultry 165F, Beef 155F, and Fish 145F Holding Hot/Cold Food

Read guidelines aloud on your notes health of our guests depend on it! Page 113 textbook The Cooling Food Quickly The FDA recommends cooling food from

135F to 70F within 2 hours and from 70F to 41F in an additional 4 hours for a total of 6 hours cooling time. Reheating Food Use thermometers to check the internal temps of food within 2 hours of reheating before serving. If it cannot be reheated to a safe temp in 2

hours, discard it. Serving Food Safely Check temps of food every 4 hours Use sneeze guards on buffets Use clean plates with additional trips to a buffet bar. Serving Food Safely

Rule of Thumb- Do not touch the part of a serving utensil, glass, dish that the customers mouth will touch. 2.4 A Clean and Sanitary Kitchen Vocabulary:

Clean IPM Integrated Pest Management Master cleaning schedule Sanitarian Sanitary 2.32

Clean- free of visible dirt, soil, dirt or food waste. MUST BE DONE FIRST! Sanitize- reducing the number of microorganisms on a surface to a safe level. DONE AFTER CLEANING AND RINSING!

2.33 Sanitizing Manually You must always WASH, RINSE, and SANITIZE for 30 SECONDS, then Air Dry using the 3 compartment sink!

By hand, use 1 capful of bleach to bucket of warm water using the red buckets. 2.34 Sanitizing by Machine First, SCRAPE,SCRAPE, SCRAPE off food iems. Load all items in the same direction on the

racks Close door firmly, run machine on AUTO, 2 or 4 minute cycle. DO NOT OPEN THE DOOR during a cycle, you will get burned! 2.35 Storing Chemicals Keep Chemicals in the Laundry Room Do not spray any chemical in the lab

2.36 Equipment Should always be stainless steel Should be unplugged before cleaning Master Cleaning Schedule Master cleaning schedule- a schedule or chart showing a cleaning program listing what is to be cleaned, who is to clean it,

how it is to be clean, and how often it is to be cleaned. Handling Garbage Never throw any item into a garbage container that does not have a liner. Get a bag and put it in the can first! Integrated Pest Management- a system to prevent, control, or eliminate pest

infestation. Sanitation Inspection Sanitarian- a person trained in sanitation principles and methods as well as public health. Employed by the state and local health departments.

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