Chapter 28 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt (19011912) At turn of the century, a group of reformers known as the progressives attempted to reform society and redress the abuses and societal decay of the Gilded Age. Progressive Roots The progressive reforms waged a war on monopoly, corruption, social injustice, etc. Roots of Gilded Age populism, labor activity further back = 2nd Gr8 Awakening Jeffersonian laissez-faire witheringsocial and econ. imperatives Progressives attack the trusts Calls for productive industry over wasteful business
Jacob Riis photos of the slums moves TRoosevelt Socialists, Christians, economists, feminists urge changes The Muckrakers Muckrakers: reporters who exposed Gilded Age abuses Railroads, trusts, govt, labor conditions, social evils, race, etc. Lincoln Steffens: corrupt alliance of biz and govt Ida M. Tarbells: Rockefellers Standard Oil Co. Ray Stannard Baker: plight of Southern blacks John Spargo: child labor Dr. Harvey W. Wiley: patent medicines The muckrakers focused on expose, rather than political change Political Progressivism
Two goals of progressives Use govt to stop monopolies Improve citizens lives and labor Political changes Initiatives, referendums, recalls, Australian ballot 17th Amendment > direct election of US Senators Progressives back suffrage Urban progressivism Attack machine politics, slumlords, prostitution, youth crime Governors LaFollette (WI), Johnson (CA), Hughes (NY) push for publics utilities This political cartoon shows La Follette holding a big club with the words For Any Old Trust. La Follette rallied against big business and trusts by bringing his message to the people. The message he
delivered was the need to restore democracy and allow the average citizen an active say in the governments actions. It depicts La Follette as a short, stout man with a large head; the club he wields is larger than he is. This implied that La Follettes strength of mind and his power to manipulate all tools available to encourage reform and put trusts in their proper place were far greater than his bodys physical strength. A verse is written below the cartoon and refers to the period when he first became a senator. The verse is entitled "From the Railroads to La Follette" and reads--From the Badger wilds comes an "ornery cuss" With a lot of noise and a lot of fuss To make in the senate an awful muss And mix up a horrible dose for us. He will not be fixed and he spurns our bait Nor would he be
governor of his state He's whetted his knife for the special rate And swears that he'll slaughter our dear rebate. La Follette Of 534 current members of Congress, at least 268 had an average net worth of $1 million or more. Members of Congress have long been far wealthier than the typical American, but the fact that now a majority of members albeit just a hair over 50 percent are millionaires represents a watershed moment at a time when lawmakers are debating issues like unemployment benefits, food stamps and the minimum wage, which affect people with far fewer
resources, as well as considering an overhaul of the tax code. The richest member of Congress is Rep. Darrell Issa (R-Calif.) chairman of the House Oversight Committee. Issa, who made his fortune in the car alarm business, has an average net worth of $464 million in 2012. The Millionaires Club http://money.cnn.com/video/news/2015/ 05/07/darrell-issa-income-inequality.cn nmoney/ Progressive Women Women leaders in the progressive activist movement Settlement house movement entry to public life Literary clubs discuss social and current events Activities an extension of maternal role Factory reformers attack labor conditions for women and children
Florence Kelleys National Consumer League Muller v. Oregon (1908): Louis D. Brandeis persuades S Court to protect women workers Response to Triangle Shirtwaist Company tragedy Regulations of hours and conditions in sweatshops Workers compensation laws Temperance movement led by women Womans Christian Temperance Union Dry laws One hundred years ago on March 25, fire spread through the cramped Triangle Waist Company garment factory on the 8th, 9th and 10th floors of the Asch Building in lower Manhattan. Workers in the factory, many of whom were young women recently arrived from Europe, had little time or
opportunity to escape. The rapidly spreading fire killed 146 workers. The building had only one fire escape, which collapsed during the rescue effort. Long tables and bulky machines trapped many of the victims. Panicked workers were crushed as they struggled with doors that were locked by managers to prevent theft, or doors that opened the wrong way. Only a few buckets of water were on hand to douse the flames. Outside, firefighters' ladders were too short to reach the top floors and ineffective safety nets ripped like paper. The Triangle Shirtwaist tragedy https://vimeo.com/69541895 TRs Square Deal
TR wants a square deal for capital, labor, public Control of corporations Consumer protection Conservation of natural resources Backs coal miners in labor dispute with the threat of forcereversal of Gilded Age trend to back Biz Creates Department of Commerce and Labor Bureau of Corporations used to break monopolies Elkins Act and Hepburn Act attacked railroad rebates and free passes ICC finally given teeth to enforce laws TR trust-bustingregulating, not destroying (Taft went further)good vs. bad trusts Upton Sinclairs The Jungle exposed the unsanitary Chicago meat industry Meat Inspection Act enables federal inspections Pure Food and Drug Act: labeling of foods and drugs
The Environment Conservation movement in the face of decades of industrialization A public reaction to the closing of the frontier TR the great outdoorsman invigorates the movement begun by Gifford Pinchot (Division of Forestry) Newlands Act, Roosevelt Dam Federal reserves of 125 million acres of forest, coal deposits, water resources Symbolically banned Christmas trees in the White House Culture and conservation Jack Londons Call of the Wild Boy Scouts Nature preserves Sierra Club Conservation (proper use of nature) vs. Preservation (protection) TR and Pinchot vs. Sierra Clubbers TRs multiple-use resource management Passing of the Baton
TR promises not to run for a third term; successor? TR chooses William Howard Taft (Sec of War) Taft wins easily against a now thrice-defeated Bryan Socialist Eugene Debs gains 400k votes TR leaves for his African safari TRs radical label overstated? TRs legacy Conservation Executive power Progressivism Foreign policy Big stick It's true that weight was an issue for Taft, who weighed in at 340 pounds on a 5'11.5" frame. In preparation for Tafts trip to inspect construction of the Panama Canal in 1909, the
captain of the USS North Carolina requested an oversized bathtub to accommodate the new president-elect. Details on the incidentif it actually happenedcan be slippery. Some legends say it took multiple men to pull him out of the jam. Others claim butter was used to slide him out. President Taft had an extra-large tub in the White House to accommodate his size. Without conclusive evidence, how did the apparent urban legend about Taft start? Was Tubgate just another example of dirty politics? Roosevelts supporters made fun of Tafts weight in the bitter 1912 election. The story could have grown from there.
With a presidential campaign in 2016 possibly featuring a Tubby Taft Dollar Diplomacy Tafts presidency hurt by political liabilities, moderate progressivism Taft encourages US investments abroad to support political interests (coined dollar diplomacy by his critics) China: attempt by Taft for US biz to take over Manchurian railroad control from Japan and Russiaepic fail broseph Caribbean Urges Wall St. to inject $ into struggling areas to prop up Monroe Doctrine American forces brought into countries to protect US investments This is basically the essence of the Roosevelt CorollaryTR provided the cover for interventions (order, democracy, civilization, uplift, etc.)Taft was more blatant about the true
reasons > $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Taft and the Republican split Taft brought more anti-trust suits than TR 90 in 4 years; 44 in 7 years for TR Standard Oil broken up in 1911 by Supreme Court The Courts rule of reason ruling hurts govt anti-trust power Tafts U.S. Steel suit enrages TR Progressive Repubs demand lower tariffs; Taft does little to dissuade Congress from passing a moderate, compromise bill (Payne-Aldrich Bill) Repubs now split between Progressives and Old Guards; lose 1910 congressional election An angry TR attempts and fails to win Repub nomination for presidentaims for a third party run
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