Chapter 23-2 Industrialization and Its Discontents
CHAPTER 23-2 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS Industrialization improved firearms, which became more accurate and faster loading. Winchester, and Krupp and Mauser, invented repeating
rifles. Recoil cylinder made field artillery more accurate and rapid-fire. Most significant development was the machine gun, invented by Hiram Maxim. First fired in 1884, and was to be the deadliest weapon even
created. The Social and Economic Impact of Industrialism: 17501914 Industrialized nations experienced rapid population growth and urbanization.
Industrial production and improved agriculture provided more jobs and food to support a larger population. Medical and sanitation advances contributed to increasing population. By late nineteenth century, Britain was the first nation to have more urban than rural inhabitants.
Emigration from Europe also increased, from less developed to more industrialized areas and to America. Railroads and steamships made this process easier. Middle class set the cultural and moral standards of the late nineteenth century.
Divided into wealthy industrialists and professionals at the top, with tradesmen and handcrafters at the bottom. Emphasized respectability, family, and industriousness.
Working class divided into skilled and unskilled labor. Lives regulated by the factory schedule and exchanging labor for wages. Harsh working conditions: dangerous machinery, long hours, and low wages.
In the early 1800s women and children made up most of the workforce. Less trained and thus less expensive to hire than male workers. Conditions particularly bad in the mines, with
heavy work and little ventilation. Cities near factories often polluted from coal smoke and other industrial production. Sanitation limited, and with large populations, outbreaks of cholera, typhus, and tuberculosis
were common. Living conditions were crowded and unsanitary. Friedrich Engels wrote a scathing attack on industrial culture in 1845. Utopian Socialists criticized working-class living
conditions and industrial abuses. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) argued for a more equitable distribution of private property. Louis Blanc (1811-1882) wanted to extend voting rights to workers in France. Chartism in Britain also advocated for extending
voting rights. Robert Owen (1771-1858) created Grand National Consolidated Trades Union and tried to organize a national strike.
Karl Marx studied the working and living conditions of workers in Manchester. Developed the theory of scientific socialism, of all history was class struggles. Believed that revolution was the method by which the working class, or proletariat, would overthrow the
capitalists. Promoted theory of dialectical materialism in 1848, collaborating with Engels. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Economics drives everything
Class struggle History is inevitable Governments were also concerned about living and working conditions. Britains Parliament passed the Factory Act in 1833.
Fixed number of hours and minimum age at nine for child labor. After 1830s conditions for female workers improved and more jobs were available. New technologies, such as the typewriter, offered women more jobs.
Women still lacked political power and economic independence. Suffrage movements, advocating for the right to vote, were popular. Living conditions improved with better sanitation.
Public Health Act in Britain, 1848, was followed by the creation of public water services in 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s electrical lighting replaced gaslights. Paris rebuilt in 1850s and 1860s, under Georges Haussman, urban planner.
Streets were widened, buildings modernized, and public parks added. Improved city and made it easier to control public demonstrations. Scale of business increased, as governments
tended to follow a laissez-faire liberalism. Companies had monopolies on industries and owners became very wealthy. Intellectual and Cultural Responses in the Age of Industrialism
Late-nineteenth-century experimentation and discovery in the nature of matter. Hendrik Lorentz, 1892, proved that the atom was made up of smaller particles. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays. Antoine Becquerel and Marie Curie found
radioactivity in uranium and radium. In 1900, Plancks Quantum Theory explains that energy is emitted in bursts. Suggests that matter and energy are interchangeable. Albert Einstein debunked the Newtonian
theory of absolute, mechanistic universe. Einstein theorized in his theory of relativity that there are no absolutes of time, space, and motion. Formula of E = MC2 suggests that matter and energy were equivalent. Small amounts of matter could be converted into
great amounts of energy. Led to the discovery of nuclear weapons in the twentieth century. Charles Darwins theory of evolution based on
observations in the Pacific. Darwin took part in an exploratory sailing mission on the Beagle, 18311836. Theory of evolution also discovered separately by Alfred Russell Wallace.
Both men suggested that species were changed the struggle for food. Darwins theory had three principle clauses. In nature, more species appear than be supported by existing food.
Species struggle to survive the shortness of food. Subtle mutations that aid in survival aid a species to survive. Darwins theory controversial because he argued for a natural selection process without
any plan by a divine being. Herbert Spencer applied Darwins theories to societies and nations. Social Darwinism applied to races, ethnicities, and peoples. Used to justify imperialism and violent
nationalism. Nineteenth century psychologists interested in unconscious impulses and insanity. Sigmund Freud invented psychoanalysis for treating emotionally disturbed.
Freud stressed the dominance of unconscious sexual urges and motivations in driving human behavior. Scientificindustrial society caused many to question their sense of purpose.
Friedrich Nietzsche criticized modern industrial society as decadent. Questioned whether Western Civilization really embodied progress. Denied the concept of rational thought as the path to truth. Only the will leads one to truth and will improve the
individual. Protestant leaders sought accommodation with science, except with Darwinism. Roman Catholic Church first opposed new science, then under Pope Leo XIII (18781903)
opened up a Vatican office to study science. Pope Pius X (19031914) went back to opposing science. Writers generally despaired of the materialism of the later industrial revolution.
Thomas Hardys novels reflect the futility of fighting modernity. George Bernard Shaw mocked the shallowness of fin-de-sicle society. Decadence and Symbolism were literary genres that represented extreme reactions to industrialization.
Pornocrates by Flicien Rops (1833-1898) Symbolism
In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake;
here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideals. Jean Moras, 1886 Death of the Grave Digger
Carlos Schwabe, 1895 Impressionist painters and then Post-Impressionists rejected middle-class conventions. Emphasis on subjective interpretations from the perspective of the artist.
Vincent van Gogh was a Post-Impressionist, represents a reaction against modernity. Other schools, such as Cubism, were increasingly experimental.
Claude Monet (1840-1926) Vincent Van Gough (1853-1890) Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
Two musical responses to the scientificindustrial society emerged. Modernism was tied to cultural developments and allied with Impressionism. Mahler, Strauss, Debussy
Primitivism took a more experimental approach and rejected formal structure. Stravinsky
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