Classification of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides or simple sugars: Polyhydroxyaldehydes or aldoses Polyhydroxyketones or ketoses Disaccharides can be hydrolyzed to two monosaccharides. Polysaccharides hydrolyze to many monosaccharide units. For example, starch and cellulose have
> 1000 glucose units. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Monosaccharide Classification Classified using three criteria: If it contains a ketone or an aldehyde group Number of carbons in the chain
Configuration of the asymmetric carbon farthest from the carbonyl group 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The D Aldose Family 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Epimers
Sugars that differ only in their stereochemistry at a single carbon The carbon at which the stereochemistry differs is usually specified. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Cyclic Structure for Glucose
Glucose exists almost entirely as its cyclic hemiacetal form. Five- or six-membered ring hemiacetals are more stable than their open-chain forms. The Haworth projection, although widely used, may give the impression of the ring being flat. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chair Conformation for Glucose
The chair conformations give a more accurate representation of glucose. Glucose exists almost entirely as its cyclic hemiacetal form. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Anomers of Glucose
The hydroxyl group on the anomeric (hemiacetal) carbon is down (axial) in the a anomer and up (equatorial) in the b anomer. The b anomer of glucose has all its substituents in equatorial positions. The hemiacetal carbon is easily identified as the only carbon atom bonded to two oxygens. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reduction of Simple Sugars Aldoses and ketoses can be reduced to the corresponding polyalcohols, called sugar alcohols or alditols. The most common reagents are NaBH4 or H2/Ni. Alditols are named by adding the suffix -itol to the root name of the sugar.
2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Reduction of b-D-Glucopyranose 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Disaccharides Three naturally occurring glycosidic linkages: 1-4 link: The anomeric carbon is bonded to oxygen on
C4 of second sugar. 1-6 link: The anomeric carbon is bonded to oxygen on C6 of second sugar. 1-1 link: The anomeric carbons of the two sugars are bonded through an oxygen. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Disaccharides (Continued)
2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Maltose: An a-1,4 Glucosidic Linkage Maltose contains an a-1,4 glucosidic linkage between the two glucose units. The monosaccharides in maltose are joined together by the
axial position of C1 and the equatorial position of C4. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Lactose: A b-1,4 Galactosidic Linkage Lactose is composed of one galactose unit and one glucose unit. The two rings are linked by a b-glycosidic bond of the
galactose acetal to the 4-position on the glucose ring: a b-1,4 galactosidic linkage. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Sucrose: Linkage of Two Anomeric Carbons Some sugars are joined by a direct glycosidic linkage between their anomeric carbon atoms: a 1,1 linkage.
2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Cellulose Cellulose is a b-1,4 polymer of D-glucose, systematically named poly(1,4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside). Cellulose is the most abundant organic material. It is synthesized by plants as a structural material to support the weight of the plant.
2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Starches: Amylose, Amylopectin, and Glycogen Amylose is an a-1,4 polymer of glucose, systematically named poly(1,4-O-a-D-glucopyranoside). 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nucleic Acids Polymer of ribofuranoside rings linked by phosphate ester groups Each ribose is bonded to a base. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
RNA Polymer Nucleic acids are assembled on a backbone made up of ribofuranoside units linked by phosphate esters. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cytidine, Uridine, Adenosine, and Guanosine Ribonucleosides are components of RNA based on glycosides of the furanose form of D-ribose. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Ribonucleotides
Ribonucleosides are esterified by phosphoric acid at their 5 position, the CH2OH at the end of the ribose chain. Ribonucleosides are joined together by phosphate ester linkages. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Phosphate Linkages A molecule of RNA
always has two ends (unless it is in the form of a large ring); one end has a free 3 group, and the other end has a free 5 group. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
DNA Bases The four common bases of DNA are cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Base Pairing in DNA and RNA
Each purine forms a stable hydrogen-bonded pair with a specific pyrimidine base. Guanine hydrogen-bonds to cytosine in three places; adenine hydrogen-bonds to thymine in two places. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The Double Helix Two complementary strands are joined by
hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. This double strand coils into a helical arrangement described by Watson and Crick in 1953. 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
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