Chapter 23 Circulation

Chapter 23 Circulation

Chapter 23 Circulatio n 23.1 Circulatory systems facilitate exchange with all body tissues Gastrovascular cavities function in digestion and transport. In ________circulatory systems, a heart pumps fluid through _____ _____ vessels to bathe tissue cells directly. In _____ circulatory systems, a heart pumps blood, which travels through arteries to capillaries to

veins and back to the heart. 23.1 Circulatory systems facilitate exchange with all body tissues The cardiovascular system of a fish includes a heart with ___ main chambers: 1. The atrium receives blood from veins. 2. The ventricle pumps blood to gills via large arteries. 23.2 Vertebrate cardiovascular systems reflect evolution A fishs two-chambered heart pumps blood in a single circulation. Land vertebrates have double circulation with a pulmonary and a systemic circuit. Amphibians and many reptiles have ___-chambered hearts. _________ and ____________ have four-chambered hearts. Gill capillaries

2 chambered heart Single circuit Ventricle Atrium Body capillaries 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Double circulation: Pulmonary circuit and Systemic circuit 3 chambered heart 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 chambered heart 23.3 The human cardiovascular system illustrates the double circulation of mammals Blood flow through the double circulatory system of humans drains from the ________ vena cava (from the head and arms) or _______ vena cava (from the lower trunk and legs) into the right atrium, moves out to the lungs via the _________________ artery, returns from the lungs to the left atrium through the _____________ vein, and leaves the heart through the ______. Animation: Path of Blood Flow in Mammals

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 23.4 The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically During diastole (filling) of the cardiac cycle, blood flows from the veins into the heart chambers. During systole (emptying), contractions of the atria push blood into the ventricles, and then stronger contractions of the ventricles propel blood into the large arteries. Heart ________ prevent the backflow of blood. The volume of blood that each ventricle pumps per minute is the cardiac output. Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per minute. To lung To lung Right atrium

Left atrium From lung From lung Semilunar valve Semilunar valve Atrioventricular (AV) valve Atrioventricular (AV) valve

Right ventricle 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Left ventricle 23.5 The SA node sets the tempo of the heartbeat The SA (sinoatrial) node generates electrical impulses in atria and sets the rate of heart contractions. The AV (atrioventricular) node relays these signals to the ventricles and triggers ventricular contractions.

An electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) detects electrical impulses in the heart and can provide data about heart health. 1 SA node (pacemaker) 2 AV node 3 4 Specialized muscle fibers

Right atrium Apex 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Wire to SA node Artificial pacemaker Heart 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Heart Attack Superior

vena cava Pulmonary artery Right coronary artery Aorta Left coronary artery Blockage Dead muscle tissue 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Plaque

Artery Stent Increased blood flow 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 23.7 The structure of blood vessels fits their functions Arteries have elastic fibers that recoil after stretching and contain a _________ layer of smooth muscle in their walls that can constrict and reduce blood flow. _____________ blood pressure. Veins have ____________ walls and lower blood pressure and velocity. One-way __________ permit blood to flow only toward the

heart. Capillaries have _________walls (only_____ thick!) and exchange gas and fluid with the interstitial fluid (then the cells). Capillary Epithelium Smooth muscle Connective tissue Epithelium Extracellular matrix Epithelium Smooth muscle Connective

tissue Artery Vein Arteriole 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Valve Venule Capillary Interstitial fluid

Diffusion of O2 and nutrients Diffusion of CO2 and other wastes Tissue cell How does the structure of a capillary relate to its function? 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 23.9 Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems Blood pressure is measured as systolic and diastolic pressures. Hypertension is a serious

cardiovascular problem that in most cases can be controlled. Prolonged hypertension is the major cause of heart attack, heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Pressure in the cuff above 120 120 Rubber cuff inflated with air Pressure in the cuff

at 120 120 70 Sounds audible in the stethoscope Artery closed 1 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Pressure in the cuff at 70

2 Sounds stop 3 1 in 3 American adults have hypertension Blood pressure level (mm/Hg) Systolic Diastolic 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Normal less than 120 and less than 80 Prehypertension 120139 or 8089 Stage 1 Hypertension

140159 or 9099 Stage 2 Hypertension 160 or higher or 100 or higher 23.10 Arteriole diameter and precapillary sphincters control the distribution of blood Smooth muscles in arteriole walls can influence blood

pressure by changing the resistance to blood flow out of the arteries and into arterioles. By opening and closing precapillary sphincters, blood flow to capillary beds in particular regions can be increased or decreased. Precapillary sphincters Thoroughfare channel Capillaries Venule

Arteriole 1 Sphincters are relaxed. Thoroughfare channel Arteriole 2 Sphincters are contracted. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Venule 23.11 Capillaries allow the transfer of substances through their walls Capillaries are the only blood vessels with walls thin enough for substances to cross. Blood pressure forces fluid and small solutes out of the capillary at

the arterial end. Osmotic pressure draws in fluid at the venous end, because the blood has a higher concentration of solutes than the interstitial fluid. Excess fluid is returned to the circulatory system through lymph vessels. 23.12 Blood consists of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma Plasma Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Plasma (55%) Constituent Major functions

Water Solvent for carrying other substances Ions (e.g., sodium, calcium, Osmotic balance, potassium, magnesium, pH buffering, and chloride, and bicarbonate) maintaining ion concentration of interstitial fluid Plasma proteins Albumin Fibrinogen Osmotic balance

and pH buffering Clotting Immunoglobulins (antibodies) Defense Apolipoproteins Lipid transport Substances transported by blood Nutrients (e.g., glucose, fatty acids, vitamins) Waste products of metabolism Respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) Hormones

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Cellular elements (45%) Cell type Centrifuged blood sample Number per L (mm3) of blood White blood cells (leukocytes) Basophils 5,00010,000

Eosinophils Red blood cells (erythrocytes) Defense and immunity Lymphocytes Monocytes Neutrophils Platelets Functions 250,000

400,000 56 million Blood clotting Transport of O2 and some CO2 23.15 CONNECTION: Stem cells offer a potential cure for blood cell diseases Stem cells are a class of _________________ cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Unspecialized adult stem cells differentiate into blood cells in red marrow inside bones. When a stem cell divides, one daughter cell remains a stem cell and

the other can take on a specialized function. Leukemia is cancer of leukocytes. Blood stem cells produce all types of blood cells and can be transplanted to treat blood cell diseases. Stem cells (in bone marrow) Lymphoid stem cells Myeloid stem cells Erythrocytes Platelets

Lymphocytes 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Basophils Eosinophils Monocytes Neutrophils You should now be able to 1. Describe the general functions of a circulatory system. 2. Compare the structures of open circulatory systems, and closed circulatory systems. 3. Compare the cardiovascular systems of a fish, an amphibian, reptiles, and a mammal. 4. Describe the pathway of blood through the mammalian cardiovascular system.

You should now be able to 5. Distinguish between diastole and systole. 6. Explain how heartbeats are controlled. 7. Define a heart attack and cardiovascular disease. 8. Relate the structure of blood vessels to their function. 9. Explain the general functions of the lymphatic system. 10. Explain how and why blood pressure changes as blood moves away from the heart. 11. Explain how blood is moved back to the heart. You should now be able to 11. Explain how blood pressure is measured. Give examples of normal and high blood pressure readings. 12. Explain how blood flow through capillaries is regulated.

13. Explain how the structure of a capillary relates to its functions. 14. Describe the components of blood and their functions. 15. Describe the structure, function, and production of red blood cells Capillary Epithelium Valve Smooth muscle Connective tissue Artery 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vein p. a. b. o. c. n. d. m. e.

l. f. k. g. j. h. i. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. a. b.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

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