Chapter 26: Europe Between the Wars By: Jacob Sisson President Woodrow Wilson recognized that the peace treaties from the end of World War I contained unwise provisions that could possibly create new conflicts. An Uncertain Peace: The Search for Security He hoped for the League of Nations which showed to not be particularly effective in maintaining the peace. However, the United States failed to join the League and they were
determined to become less involved in European affairs. The Leagues sole weapon for halting aggression was economic sanctions. The weakness of the League of Nations and the failure of both the United States and Great Britain to honor their promises to form defensive military alliances with France left France embittered and alone. This is an image of the United States President, Woodrow Wilson. To compensate for Russia being a hostile power, France built a network of alliances in eastern Europe with Poland and the members of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia). An Uncertain
Peace: The Search for Security Poland and the Little Entente was no substitute for Russia. This shows an image of the Little Entente (highlighted in green) The French Policy of Coercion (1919-1924) Between 1919 and 1924 there was a strict enforcement of the Treaty of Versailles. This began with reparations, the payments that the Germans were supposed to make to compensate for the
damage done to the civilian population of the Allied and Associated Powers and to their property, as the treaty asserted. In April 1921, the Allied Reparations Commission settled on a sum of $33 billion for German reparations, payable in annual installments of 2.5 billion marks. Allied threats to occupy the Ruhr valley, Germanys chief industrial and mining center, led the new German republic to accept the reparations settlement and make its first payment in 1921. Economic disaster fueled political upheavals as Communists staged uprisings in October 1923, and Adolf Hitlers band of Nazis attempted to seize power in Munich in November. Created in August 1924, an international commission produced a new plan for reparations. The Hopeful Years (19241929)
Named the Dawes Plan after the American banker who chaired the commission, it reduced reparations and stabilized Germanys payments on the basis of its ability to pay. This also granted an initial $200 million loan for German recovery, which opened the door to heavy American investments in Europe that helped usher in a new era of European prosperity between 1924 and 1929. The Spirit of Locarno The Hopeful Years (19241929) A spirit of international cooperation was fostered by the foreign ministers of Germany and France, Gustav Stresemann
and Aristide Briand, who concluded the Treaty of Locarno in 1925. This guaranteed Germanys new western borders with France and Belgium. Although Germanys new eastern borders with Poland were conspicuously absent from the agreement, a clear indication that Germany did not accept those borders as permanent, the Locarno pact was viewed by many as the beginning of a new era of European peace. Similar optimistic attitudes prevailed in the Kellog-Briand pact, drafted by the American secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg and the French foreign minister Aristide Briand. Sixty-three nations eventually agreed to the pact, in which they
pledged to renounce war as an instrument of national policy. Nothing was said, however, about what would be done if anyone violated the treaty. Coexistence with Soviet Russia By the beginning of 1924, Soviet hopes for communist revolutions in Western states had largely dissipated. In turn, these states had realized by then that the Bolshevik regime could not be ousted. By 1924, Germany, Britain, France, and Italy, as well as several smaller European
countries, had established full diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia. After World War I, European states returned to the liberal idea of a market economy based on private enterprise and largely free of state intervention. The war had strengthened business cartels and labor unions, making some government regulation necessary. The Great Depression The prosperity that did occur between 1924 and 1929 was uncommonly fragile, and the dream of returning to a self-reulating market economy was mere illusion.
The Causes There were two factors that played an important role in bringing on the Great Depression: The Great Depression 1. A downturn in domestic economies. 2. An international financial crisis caused by the collapse of the American stock market in 1929. Already in the mid-1920s, prices for agricultural goods were beginning to
decline rapidly due to overproduction of basic commodities, such as wheat. In 1925, states in central and eastern Europe began to impose tariffs to close their markets to other countries goods. This is an image of the newspaper published on October 28, 1929 when the American stock market crashed and began the Great depression. Unemployment The Great Depression During 1932, the worst year of the depression, on British worker in four was unemployed, and six million Germans40 percent of the German labor
forcewere out of work. Between 1929 and 1932, industrial production plummeted almost 50 percent in the United States and nearly as much in Germany. The unemployed and homeless filled the streets of cities throughout the advanced industrial countries. Social and Political Repercussions Women were often able to secure lowpaying jobs as servants, housecleaners, or laundresses while many men remained unemployed, either begging on the streets or staying at home to do household tasks.
High unemployment rates among young males often led them to join gangs that gathered in parks or other public places, arousing fear among local residents. Increased government activity in the economy was one reaction, even in countries like the United States that had a strong laissez-faire tradition. The Great Depression increased the attractiveness of simplistic dictatorial solutions, especially from a new authoritarian movement known as fascism. Many women during the Great Depression got jobs such as this in small factories that did not pay good at all. However, it was a job which were hard to come upon.
The Democratic States Four major European states and a host of minor ones had functioning political democracies. In a number of nations, universal male suffrage had even been replace by universal suffrage as male politicians rewarded women for their contributions to World War I by granting them the right to vote. The four were: Great Britain, France, the Scandinavian States, and the United States. When women gained the right to vote. By 1923, British politics experienced a major transformation when the Labour
Party surged ahead of the Liberals as the second most powerful party in Britain after the Conservatives. After the elections of November 1923, a Labour-Liberal agreement enabled Ramsay MacDonald to become the first Labour prime minister of Britain. His government lasted only ten months. Great Britain Stanley Baldwin led the Conservatives for 4 years right up to when the Great Depression began. Coal miners were especially affected by the decline of the antiquated and inefficient British coal mines, which also suffered from a world glut of coal. Attempts by mine owners to lower coal miners wages led to a national strike by miners and sympathetic trade unions. A National Government claimed credit for bringing Britain out of the worst stages of the depression, primarily by using the traditional policies of balanced budgets
and protective tariffs. British politicians largely ignored the new ideas of a Cambridge economist, John Maynard Keynes, who published his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936. He argued that unemployment stemmed not from overproduction but from a decline in demand and that demand could be increased by public works, financed, if necessary, through deficit spending to stimulate production. John Maynard Keynes After the war France had become the strongest power on the European continent. The conservative National Bloc government, led by Raymond Poincare, sought to use German reparations for the purpose of rebuilding devastated areas of France. His government was voted out of power and replaced by the Cartel of the Left, which was a coalition government formed by two French leftist parties, the Radicals and the Socialists. The failure of this brought Poincares government
back into power. France The riots of February 1934, fomented by a number of French right-wing leagues, frightened many into believing that the extremists intended to seize power. These fears began to drive the leftist parties together despite their other differences and led in 1936 to the formation of the Popular Front. The first Popular Front government was formed in June 1936 and was a coalition of the Socialists and Radicals. The Popular Front succeeded in initiating a program for workers that some have called the French New Deal. It established the right of collective bargaining, a forty-hour workweek, two-week paid vacations, and minimum wages. The Popular Fronts policies failed to solve the problems of the depression, however. By 1938, the French were experiencing a serious decline of confidence in their political system that left them unprepared to deal with their aggressive Nazi enemy to the east.
They were relatively successful in coping with the Great Depression. Socialist parties became the head of the governments of Sweden. Denmark, Norway, and Finland. The Scandinavian States They encouraged the development of rural and industrial cooperative enterprises. Social Democratic governments also greatly expanded social services. Not only did Scandinavian governments increase old-age pensions and unemployment insurance, but they also provided such novel forms of assistance as subsidized housing, free prenatal care, maternity allowances, and annual paid vacations for workers. They required high taxes and large bureaucracies, but these did not
prevent both private and cooperative enterprises from prospering. By the end of 1932, industrial production was down almost 50 percent. By 1933, there were fifteen million unemployed. Under these circumstances, the Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the 1932 presidential election by a landslide. The United States Roosevelt created a new policy called the New Deal. The first New Deal created a variety of agencies designed to bring relief, recovery, and reform. To support the nations banks, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was established; it insured the safety of bank deposits up to $5,000. By 1935, it was becoming apparent that the initial efforts of Roosevelts administration had produced only a slow recovery at best. He inaugurated new efforts that collectively became known as the Second
New Deal. These included a stepped-up program of public works, such as the Works Progress Administration, established in 1935. The New Deal provided some social reform measures that perhaps averted the possibility of social revolution in the United States. Only World War II and the subsequent growth of armaments industries brought American workers back to full employment. Franklin Delano Roosevelt European States and the World: The Colonial Empires Despite the war, the Allied nations had managed to keep their
colonial empires intact. Great Britain and France had even added to their empires by dividing up many of Germanys colonial possessions and, as we have seen, taking control of large parts of the Middle East through a system of mandates. In Asia and Africa, a rising tide of unrest against European political domination began to emerge. That unrest took a variety of forms but was most notably displayed in increasing worker activism, rural protest, and a rising sense of national fervor. The Middle East European States and the World: The Colonial Empires
With the fall of the Ottoman and Persian Empires, new modernizing regimes emerged in Turkey and Iran. Elsewhere in the Middle east, European influence remained strong; the British and French maintained their mandates in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine. Colonel Mustafa Kemal led Turkish forces in creating a new republic of turkey in 1923. Kemal wanted to modernize Turkey along Western lines. The Turkish language was now written using the Latin alphabet. Popular education was introduced, and old aristocratic titles were abolished. All Turkish citizens were forced to adopt family names, in the European style. Kemal adopted the name Ataturk, meaning Father Turk who made Turkey a secular republic and broke the power of the Islamic religion.
Colonel Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) India European States and the World: The Colonial Empires By the time of World War I, the Indian people had already begun to refer to Mohandas Gandhi as Indias Great Soul, or Mahatma. He set up a movement based on
nonviolent resistance whose aim was to force the British to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India. He called on his followers to follow a peaceful policy of civil disobedience by refusing to obey British regulations. Independence would have to wait until after World War II. Africa Black Africans who fought in World War I in the armies of the British and French hoped for independence after the war. Instead, Germany was stripped of
its African colonies, but they were awarded to the British and the French to administer as mandates for the League of Nations. Protest took different forms. In Nigeria and South Africa, workers created trade unions that tried to gain benefits for workers. Although colonial powers responded to these protest movements with force, they also began to make some reforms in the hope of satisfying indigenous peoples. Mohandas Gandhi
Italy and Germany had succumbed to fascism, while the Soviet Union, under Stalin, had moved toward a repressive totalitarian state. Retreat from Democracy: The Authoritarian and Totalitarian States The immediate origins of totalitarianism can be found in the total warfare of World War I when governments, even in the democratic states, exercised controls over economic, political, and personal freedom in order to achieve victory. They used modern mass propaganda techniques and high-speed modern communications to conquer the minds and hearts of their
subjects. Totalitarianism is an abstract term, and no state followed all its theoretical implications. The fascist statesItaly and Nazi Germany as well as Stalins Soviet Union have all been label totalitarian, although their regimes exhibited significant differences and met with varying degrees of success. Totalitarianism could and did exist in what were perceived as extreme right-wing and left-wing regimes. Impact of World War I An estimated 700,000 Italian soldiers died, and the treasury reckoned the cost of the war at 148 billion lire, twice the sum of all government expenditures between 1861 and 1913. Fascist Italy Italy gained Trieste and a new northern border that included the
formerly Austrian South Tyrol area. The war created immense domestic confusion. Inflation undermined middle-class security. Demobilization of the troops created high un employment and huge groups of dissatisfied veterans. The Birth of Fascism Benito Mussolini received a diploma as an elementary school teacher. After being unsuccessful as a teacher, he became a socialist and gradually became well-known in Italian socialist circles. In 1912, he became the editor of the official socialist party newspaper. He was eventually expelled from the Socialist Party. Fascist Italy He laid the foundations for a new political movement called fascism after the Fascio di Combattimento (League of Combat).
He shifted quickly from leftist to rightist politics and began to gain support from middle-class industrialists fearful of working-class agitation and landowners who objected to the agricultural strikes. In 1920 and 1921, bands of armed Fascists called squadristi were formed and turned loose in attacks on Socialist offices and newspapers. By 1921, the blackshirts or squadristi squads numbered 200,000 and had became a regular feature of Italian life. They marched into Rome twenty-four hours after Mussolini was named the prime minister of Italy. This is the squadristi forces created by Benito Mussolini. Mussolini and the Italian Fascist State In the summer of 1923, Mussolini began to prepare for a national election that would consolidate the power of his Fascist government and give him a more secure base from which to govern.
Fascist Italy In July 1923, parliament enacted the Acerbo Law, which stipulated that any party winning at least 25 percent of the votes in the next national election would automatically be allotted two-thirds of the seats in parliament. The Fascists garnered 374 of 535 possible seats in parliament. Mussolini and the Fascists also attempted to mold Italians into a single-minded community by pursuing a Fascist educational policy and developing Fascist organizations. Women into the home became the Fascist slogan. Women were to be homemakers and baby producers, their natural and fundamental mission in life. They gained the support of the Catholic Church after the Lateran Accords. Weimar Germany
Hitler and Nazi Germany After the defeat of Germany in World War I, a German democratic state known as the Weimar Republic was established. Even from its beginnings it had problems. There were no great political leaders. Its more able leaders, such as Friedrich Ebert, who served as president, and Gustav Stresemann, the foreign minister and chancellor, died in the 1920s. They faced many economic
difficulties. The runaway inflation of 1922 and 1923 had serious social repercussions. Because of their problems, Hitler and the Nazis were able to rise to power. The Emergence of Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler was rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. In his autobiography, Mein Kampf, Hitler characterized his years in Vienna as an important formative period in his life. He established the basic ideas of an ideology from which he never deviated. It was centered around
racism, especially anti-Semitism. He was a dispatch runner in World War I and he distinguished himself by his brave acts. Once he had figured out that his life had no real purpose or meaning he entered politics and found his true profession. This is a Flag from the Weimar Republic. This is a picture of the autobiography of Adolph Hitler. The Rise of the Nazis Hitler joined the German Workers Party, one of the right-wing extreme nationalist parties in Munich.
Hitler and Nazi Germany He soon became the leader of this party, which he renamed the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazi for short. He worked to gain support from both working-class and nationalist circles. They had flags, badges, uniforms, its own newspaper, and its own police force or militia known as the SA, the Sturmabteilung, or Storm Troops. In its early years, the Nazi Party had been only one of many radical right-wing political groups in southern Germany. By 1923, it had become the strongest. In the so-called Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler was arrested, put on trial for treason and sentenced to prison for five years.
The Nazis had many mass political movements such as this one in the Reichstag. The Nazi Seizure of Power While in prison Hitler occupied himself with the writing of his autobiography. He also came up with many theories. Hitler and Nazi Germany He believed that extreme German nationalism, virulent anti-Semitism, and vicious anticommunism are linked together by a social Darwinian theory of struggle that stresses the right of superior nations to Lebensraum (living space) through expansion and the right of superior individuals to secure authoritarian leadership over the masses. The Nazi party was to follow the Fuhrerprinzip, the leadership principle, which entailed nothing less than a single-minded party under one leader.
The party changed from targeting workers from the Socialists and Communists to targeting the middle-class and the lower-middle-class votes in small towns and rural areas. In the Reichstag elections of September 1930, the Nazis gained 107 seats in the Reichstag. The Party grew from 289,000 in September 1930 to 800,000 by 1932. The SA also rose to 500,000 members. This is Adolph Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party. The Nazi Seizure of Power Continued Hitler became chancellor on January 30, 1933. Hitler and Nazi Germany
The Enabling Act was a bill that would empower the government to dispense with constitutional forms for four years while it issued laws that would deal with the countrys problems. It would need a two-thirds vote to pass. The Nazis quickly acted to enforce the Gleichschaltung, the coordination of all institutions under Nazi control. Germany Awake, one of the many Nazi slogans, had a powerful appeal to a people psychologically crushed by their defeat in World War I. When Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, the office of president was abolished, and Hitler became sole ruler of Germany. The Third Reich had begun. The Nazi State (1933-1939) Hitler wanted to develop a total state. Hitler and
Nazi Germany This was part of his belief of Aryanism, which was the development of an Aryan racial state that would dominate Europe and possibly the world for generations to come which required a massive movement in which the German people would be involved. They tried to do this through mass demonstrations. Hitler created his own personal bodyguard, the SS, under the direction of Heinrich Himmler, which soon came to control all of the regular and secret police forces. They began early with an early indoctrination with youth organizations, the Hitler Jugend, and its female counterpart, the Bund Deutscher Madel. Hitler created the Nuremberg Laws which excluded German Jews from German citizenship and forbade marriages and extramarital relations between Jews and German citizens. They essentially separated Jews from the Germans politically, socially, and legally and were the natural
extension of Hitlers stress on the preservation of a pure Aryan race. This is the Hitler Jugend or Hitler Youth, which teaches them the Nazi way as kids. The Nazi State (1933-1939) Continued Hitler and Nazi Germany On November 9-10, 1938, the infamous Kristallnacht, or Night of Shattered Glass occurred where the assassination of a third secretary in the German embassy in Paris led to a destructive rampage against the Jews in which synagogues were burned, seven thousand Jewish businesses were destroyed, and at least one hundred Jews were killed. They then furthered their torture and alienation of the Jews. The Nazis encouraged women to get jobs such as social work and
nursing. They were even encouraged to work in areas previously dominated by males. During the civil war, Lenin had pursued a policy of war communism. Under this policy the government had nationalized transportation and communication facilities as well as banks, mines factories, and businesses that employed more than ten workers. The Soviet Union Hunger led to an untold number of deaths in the countryside. Added to this problem was drought, which caused a great famine between 1920 and 1922 that claimed as many as five million lives. The New Economic Policy
The Soviet Union In March 1921, Lenin established his New Economic Policy (NEP). The NEP was a modified version of the old capitalist system. The Struggle for Power Leon Trotsky wanted to end the NEP and carry the revolution on. The right of the Politburo wanted to concentrate on
constructing a socialist state. In 1922, Lenin and the Communists created the USSR. Trotsky had been a key to the Bolshevik Revolution and the Red Army. The NEP saved the Soviet Union form economic disaster. Josheph Stalin had joined the Bolsheviks in 1903 and had come to Lenins attention. He
was the general secretary for the Bolshevik party. He gained complete control of the Communist Party. Joseph Stalin The Stalinist Era (1929-1939) The Soviet Union Stalin made a significant shift in economic policy in 1928 when he launched his first five-year plan. Its goal was nothing less than the transformation of the Soviet Union from an agricultural country into an industrial state virtually overnight. Soviet labor policy stressed high levels of achievement, typified by
the Stakhanov cult. Alexei Stakhanov was a coal miner who mined 102 tons of coal in one shift, exceeding the norm by 1,300 percent. He became an example for others. Stalin believed they could get the capital needed to become industrialized by eliminating private farms and pushing people into collective farms. Here all the people would work together to create all of their goods on one farm. Stalin went against previous laws and said that the new divorce law of June 1936 imposed fines for repeated divorces, and homosexuality was declared a criminal activity. The Authoritarian state tended to limit the participation of the masses and was content with passive obedience rather than active involvement in the goals of the regime. Authoritarianism in Eastern
Europe The new states of Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia adopted parliamentary systems, and the preexisting kingdoms of Romania and Bulgaria gained new parliamentary constitutions in 1920. King Boris III established an authoritarian regime in Bulgaria in 1923. Poland established an authoritarian regime in 1926 when Marshal Joseph Pilsudski created a military dictatorship. In Yugoslavia, King Alexander I abolished the constitution and imposed a royal dictatorship in 1929. Only Czechoslovakia maintained is political democracy. Summary Dictatorship
in the Iberian Peninsula King Alfonso XIII supported General Miguel Primo de Rivera who led a successful military coup in September 1923 and created a personal dictatorship that lasted until 1930. When Alfonso XIII left Spain in 1931, and a new Spanish republic was instituted, political turmoil ensued until the Popular Front brought the revolutionary left to power in
1936. The Spanish Civil War Led by General Francisco Franco, Spanish military forces revolted against the government and inaugurated a brutal and bloody Spanish Civil War that lasted three years. His forces were aided by arms, money, and men from the fascist regimes of Italy and Germany. Franco wore down the Popular Front, and after they capture Madrid on March 28, 1939, the Spanish Civil War finally came to an end. The war had been brutal. Probably
400,000 people died in the war, only one-fourth on the battlefield. Civilians were killed by the air raids, disease, and bloody reprisals. Another 200,000 were executed in the years following. This is Francisco Franco beginning the Spanish Civil War for a Fascist Spain. The Franco Regime Dictatorship in the Iberian Peninsula Franco established a dictatorship that lasted until
1975, when he died. The fascist movement in Spain, known as the Falange and led by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera contributed little to Francos success and played a minor role in the new regime. Francos government, which favored large landowners, business, and the Catholic clergy, was yet another example of a traditional, conservative, authoritarian regime. Portugal In 1910, the Portuguese had
overthrown their monarchy and established a republic. Severe inflation after World War I intensified political instability. The finance minister, Antonio Salazar, had become the strongman of the regime. Salazar controlled the Portuguese government for the next forty years. The Roaring Twenties is what this period of popular culture was called. The Expansion
of Mass Culture and Mass Leisure Berlin was the entertainment center of Europe with its theaters, cabarets, cinemas, and jazz clubs. The most popular dances were the Charleston and the Bunny Hug. Josephine Baker brought American Negro jazz music to the European clubs. This period of time was known as the Jazz Age. Mass communication saw major revolution when Marconi discovered wireless radio waves. Radio and Movies
Created in 1926, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was the biggest permanent broadcasting system. They were able to broadcast their station to nearly 2.2 million radios in Great Britain. Movies saw a new aspect that started with the full-length American film Birth of a Nation, which established cinema as a new form of entertainment. The first sound films such as The Blue Angel popularized new images of womens sexuality. The radio and movies were often used for political purposes, especially with the use of propaganda. Families would crowd around the radios to tune into the British Broadcasting System. Summary Mass
Leisure New work patterns after World War I made the amount of free time available huge. By 1920, the eight-hour day had become the norm for many office and factory workers in northern and western Europe. Sports Professional sporting events became for mass audiences and became spectator sports. This started with the inauguration of the World Cup contest in 1930
that added to the nationalistic rivalries that began to surround such mass sporting events. Many new stadiums were built for the sporting events. For the 1936 Olympics, the Germans built a stadium in Berlin that seated 140,000 people. The 1936 Olympic games in Berlin, Germany served as a beginning of spectator sports. Tourism Mass Leisure The first regular international
airmail service began in 1919, and regular passenger service soon followed. People began to make excursions to beaches or resorts more popular and more affordable. Beaches, such as the one at Brighton in England, were increasingly mobbed by crowds of people from all social classes. Organized Mass Leisure in Italy and Germany Mussolinis Italy created the Dopolavoro (after-work) as a vast
national recreation agency. They were responsible for establishing clubhouses with libraries, radios, and athletic facilities in virtually every town and village. This enabled the government to provide recreational activities and supervise them as well. The Nazi regime adopted a program similar to the Dopolavoro in its Kraft durch Freude. This was used to coordinate the free time of the working class by offering a variety of leisure time activities, including concerts, operas, films, guided tours, and sporting events.
The leisure time activities allowed people to take vacations and even go on cruises. Cultural and Intellectual Trends in the Interwar Years In The Decline of the West, the German writer Oswald Spengler reflected his disillusionment when he emphasized the decadence of Western civilization and posited its collapse. The war had served to break down many traditional middle-class attitudes, especially toward sexuality. Women went to short skirts, short hair, the use of cosmetics that were once thought to be the preserve of prostitutes, and the new practice of sun tanning gave
women a new image. In England in 1918, Marie Stopes published Married Love, which emphasized sexual pleasure in marriage and soon became a bestseller. New ideas on sexuality and birth control were also spread to the working classes by family planning clinics. The Dada Movement Nightmares and New Visions: Art and Music Dadaism attempted to enshrine the purposelessness of life. Tristan Tzara was one of the founders of Dadaism.
The 1918 Berlin Dada Manifesto maintained that Dada is the international expression of our times, the great rebellion of artistic movements. Hannah Hoch was the only female member of the Berlin Dada Club. In her Dada Dance, she seemed to criticize the new woman by making fun of the way women were inclined to follow new fashion styles. Surrealism An important artistic movement was Surrealism,
which sought a reality beyond the material, sensible world and found it in the world of the unconscious through the portrayal of fantasies, dreams, or nightmares. Salvador Dali became the high priest of Surrealism. He created a disturbing world in which the irrational had become tangible. Quite possibly the most famous surreal artwork by Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Functionalism in Modern Architecture
Nightmares and New Visions: Art and Music Functionalism showed itself in the architecture of this era built on the idea of architecture being functional or useful, fulfilling the purpose they were constructed for. The United States was a leader in this idea. The Chicago School of the 1890s, led by Louis H. Sullivan, used these ideas. One of his most successful pupils was Frank Lloyd Wright.
Functionalism was spread by the Bauhaus School of art, architecture, and design, founded in 1919 by the Berlin architect Walter Gropius. His buildings were often decorated steel boxes. A Popular Audience The German Kurt Weill had been a struggling composer of classical music before he turned to jazz rhythms and other popular musical idioms for the music for The Threepenny Opera. The artists often placed their studios in working-class
neighborhoods in an attempt to transform society. Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union did not agree with this form of entertainment. This is the Bauhaus School of art, architecture, and design. Founded by Walter Gropius. Art in Totalitarian Regimes Nightmares and New Visions: Art and Music Hitler and the Nazis rejected
modern art as degenerate or Jewish art. Hitler and the Nazis believed that his speech, in July 1937, had laid the foundation for a new and genuine German art. The art produced by the school of socialist realism in the Soviet Union. The Soviet painting was expected to focus on a nineteenth-century pictorial style aimed at realistic presentation. A New Style in Music The Viennese composer
Arnold Schonberg began to experiment with a radically new style by creating musical pieces in which tonality is completely abandoned, a system that he called atonal music. He created a new system of compositiontwelve-tone compositionwhich used a scale of twelve notes independent of any tonal key. This is an example of degenerate or Jewish art. The interest in the unconscious, evident in Surrealism, was apparent in the new literary techniques.
The Search for the Unconscious in Literature One of the manifestations was in the stream of consciousness technique in which the writer presented an interior monologue, or a report of the inner most thoughts of each character. An example of this would be James Joyces Ulysses, published in 1922, which told the story of one day in the life of ordinary people in Dublin by following the flow of their inner dialogue. Another example of this would be Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway and Jacobs Room, in which she used the inner monologues of her main characters to reveal their world of existence. Hermann Hesses novels reflected Carl Jungss psychological
theories and Eastern religions and focused among other things on the spiritual loneliness of modern human beings in a mechanized urban society. The Unconscious in Psychology: Carl Jung The full impact of Sigmund Freuds thought was not felt until after World War I when Freudian terms, such as unconscious, repression, id, ego, and Oedipus complex, entered the common vocabulary. One of his main challengers was a disciple of Freud, Carl Jung who came to believe that Freuds theories were too narrow and reflected Freuds own personal biases. Jung viewed the unconscious as twofold: a personal unconscious
and, at a deeper level, a collective unconscious. To Jung, the archetypes proved that mind was only in part personal or individual because their origin was buried so far in the past that they seemed to have no human source. Carl Jung The Heroic Age of Physics Ernest Rutherford, one of the physicists responsible for demonstrating that the atom could be split, dubbed the 1920s the heroic age of physics. In 1927, the German physicist Werner Heisenberg posited the uncertainty principle. He argued that no one could determine the path of an electron
because the very act of observing the electron with light affected the electrons location. He shattered confidence in predictability and dared to propose that uncertainty was at the root of all physical laws. Ernest Rutherford The End Thanks for reading this presentation Jacob Sisson