Basic Structure of a Cell 1 History of Cells & the Cell Theory Virchow Cell Specialization
2 First to View Cells In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork (dead plant cells) What he saw looked like small boxes
3 First to View Cells Hooke is responsible for naming cells Hooke called them CELLS because they looked like the small rooms that monks lived in called Cells
4 Anton van Leeuwenhoek In 1673, Leeuwenhoek (a Dutch microscope maker), was first to view organism (living things) Leeuwenhoek used
a simple, handheld microscope to view pond water & scrapings from his teeth 5 Beginning of the Cell Theory In 1838, a
German botanist named Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants were made of cells Schleiden is a cofounder of the cell theory 6
Beginning of the Cell Theory In 1839, a German zoologist named Theodore Schwann concluded that all animals were made of cells
Schwann also cofounded the cell theory 7 Beginning of the Cell Theory In 1855, a German medical doctor named Rudolph
Virchow observed, under the microscope, cells dividing He reasoned that all cells come from other pre-existing cells by cell division 8 CELL THEORY
All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life) Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division) 9 Discoveries
Since the Cell Theory 10 Simple or Complex Cells 11 Prokaryotes The first Cells
Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Includes bacteria Simplest type of cell Single, circular chromosome 12 Prokaryotes Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA
Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contain ribosomes (no membrane) in their cytoplasm to make proteins 13 Eukaryotes Cells that HAVE a
nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals More complex type of cells 14 Eukaryotic Cell
Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles 15 Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells
Plant Cell Animal Cell 16 Organelles 17 Organelles Very small (Microscopic)
Perform various functions for a cell Found in the cytoplasm May or may not be membrane-bound 18 Cell or Plasma Membrane Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins Surrounds outside of ALL cells Controls what enters or leaves the cell
Living layer Outside of cell Proteins Carbohydrate chains Cell membrane Inside
of cell (cytoplasm) Protein channel Lipid bilayer 19 Phospholipids Heads contain glycerol &
phosphate and are hydrophilic (attract water) Tails are made of fatty acids and are hydrophobic (repel water) Make up a bilayer where tails point inward toward each other Can move laterally to allow small molecules (O2, CO2, & H2O to enter) 20
The Cell Membrane is Fluid Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing 21 Cell Membrane Proteins Proteins help move large molecules or aid in cell recognition Peripheral proteins are
attached on the surface (inner or outer) Integral proteins are embedded completely through the membrane 22 Cell Membrane in Plants Cell membrane
Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Pushes out against the cell wall to maintain cell 23
Cell Wall Cell wall Found outside of the cell membrane Nonliving layer Supports and protects cell Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria
24 Cytoplasm of a Cell cytoplasm Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for
chemical reactions to 25 More on Cytoplasm cytoplasm Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs
26 The Control Organelle Nucleus Controls the normal activities of the cell Contains the DNA in chromosomes
Bounded by a 27 More on the Nucleus Nucleu s Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes
that carry genes Genes control 28 Nuclear Envelope Double membrane surrounding nucleus Also called nuclear membrane Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter &
leave nucleus Nuclear pores 29 Inside the Nucleus The genetic material (DNA) is found DNA is spread out And appears as CHROMATIN in non-dividing cells
DNA is condensed & wrapped around proteins forming as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells 30 What Does DNA do? DNA is the hereditary material of the cell
Genes that make up the DNA molecule code for different proteins 31 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Disappears when cell divides Makes ribosomes that
make proteins 32 Cytoskeleton Helps cell maintain cell shape Also help move organelles around Made of proteins Microfilaments are threadlike & made of ACTIN
Microtubules are tubelike & made of TUBULIN 33 Cytoskeleton MICROTUBULES MICROFILAMENTS 34
Centrioles Found only in animal cells Paired structures near nucleus Made of bundle of microtubules Appear during cell division forming mitotic spindle Help to pull chromosome pairs
apart to opposite ends of the cell 35 Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria) Powerhouse of the cell Generate cellular energy (ATP) More active cells like
muscle cells have MORE mitochondria Both plants & animal cells have mitochondria Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION (burning glucose) 36 MITOCHONDRIA Surrounded by a
DOUBLE membrane Has its own DNA Folded inner membrane called CRISTAE (increases surface area for more chemical Reactions) Interior called MATRIX 37
Interesting Fact -- Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization Therefore You inherit your mitochondria from your mother! 38
Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER Network of hollow membrane tubules Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane Functions in Synthesis of cell products & Transport Two kinds of ER ---ROUGH & SMOOTH 39 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
(Rough ER) Has ribosomes on its surface Makes membrane proteins and proteins for export out of cell 40 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) Proteins are made
by ribosomes on ER surface They are then threaded into the interior of the Rough ER to be modified and transported 41 Functions of the Smooth ER
Makes membrane lipids (steroids) Regulates calcium (muscle cells) Destroys toxic substances (Liver) 42 Endomembrane System Includes nuclear membrane connected to ER
connected to cell membrane (transport) 43 Ribosomes Made of PROTEINS and rRNA Protein factories for cell Join amino acids to make proteins through protein synthesis 44
Ribosomes Can be attached to Rough ER OR Be free (unattached ) in the cytoplasm 45
Golgi Bodies Stacks of flattened sacs Have a shipping side (cis face) & a receiving side (trans face) Receive proteins made by ER Transport vesicles with modified
proteins pinch off the ends CIS TRAN S Transpo rt vesicle 46
Golgi Bodies Look like a stack of pancakes Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell 47 Golgi Animation
Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES 48 Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts for cells
Programmed for cell death (APOPTOSIS) Lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) 49 Lysosome Digestion Cells take in food by phagocytosis
Lysosomes digest the food & get rid of wastes 50 Cilia & Flagella Function in moving cells, in moving fluids, or in small particles across the
cell surface 51 Cilia & Flagella Cilia are shorter and more numerous on cells Flagella are longer and
fewer (usually 1-3) on cells 52 Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella 53 Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs
54 Vacuoles Fluid filled sacks for storage Small or absent in animal cells Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole 55 Vacuoles In plants, they store Cell Sap
Includes storage of sugars, proteins, minerals, lipids, wastes, salts, water, and enzymes 56 Chloroplasts Found only in producers (organisms containing chlorophyll) Use energy from sunlight to make
own food (glucose) Energy from sun stored in the Chemical Bonds of Sugars 57 Chloroplasts Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane Outer membrane smooth Inner membrane modified into sacs called
Thylakoids Thylakoids in stacks called Grana & interconnected Stroma gel like material surrounding thylakoids 58
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