Unit 4: GROWTH OF THE YOUNG NATION The Young Nation Grows Nationalism Sectionalism Federalists vs. Republicans John Adams and the Federalists were in power after President Washingtons term. Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans formed an opposition party because they were upset with
the Alien & Sedition Acts and a Quasi-War with France. 1. What was Thomas Jeffersons party? 2. Which party did farmers and Southerners generally support? 3. Why did Jefferson form an opposition party? NATIONALISM: Caring About the Whole Country(not just your part) A. B. C. D.
Judicial nationalism Nationalism in foreign policy Economic nationalism Manifest Destiny and Territorial expansion A. JUDICIAL NATIONALISM: The Marshall Court Chief Justice Marshall sets several legal precedents that strengthened the power of the Supreme Court as an equal branch
of the government. Marshall was a Federalist and believed in a strong central government. The Marshall Court You have been elected the new Mayor of Ashburn. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasnt made it to the personnel office yet. Should you 1) honor the jobs promised by the old mayor, or 2) cancel the jobs since they arent officially in the system yet?
The Marshall Court You have been elected the new Mayor of Ashburn. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasnt made it to the personnel office yet. What are the possible negatives to denying these people their jobs? What are the possible positives to allowing them to take these jobs? The Marshall Court You have been elected the new Mayor of
Ashburn. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasnt made it to the personnel office yet. Would it make a difference if the prospective employees had worked against you in the mayoral elections? The Marshall Court Marbury vs Madison
The Midnight Judges Can Congress tell the Court to enforce a duty of the executive branch? The first time a law is declared unconstitutional. Judicial Review The power of the Courts to review laws of Congress and decide whether they are
constitutional. The Marshall Court McCullough v Maryland Maryland wanted to tax a States cant be more powerful than the national branch of the National government Bank (that was located in Implied Powers Maryland)
Does the Constitution The Courts can even allow a National interpret the Bank at all? Constitution to say what the government can and cant do The Marshall Court Gibbons v Ogden
Who gets to control the ferry business between NY & NJ? The states wanted control. Federal control of Interstate Commerce The national government has the final say in regulating commerce between the states.
The Marshall Court The Marshall Court set the foundation of the Supreme Courts authority to mediate (resolve) disagreements between branches of governments, levels of government, and competing business interests. A. JUDICIAL NATIONALISM: The M&M Cases
Marbury v. Madison established the principle of Judicial Review the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional McCulloch v. Maryland established the principle of Implied Powers the ability of the Supreme Court to determine national powers that arent in the Constitution, and to say that states cant overrule national laws Gibbons v. Ogden said that the national
government controls commerce between states Lets the Alien & Sedition Acts expire Cuts all internal taxes Uses tariffs and sales of Western land to reduce the National Debt Barbary pirates from North Africa attack US ships &
demand tributes Jefferson sent the USS Constitution & orders a blockade The pirates sign a treaty which ends all tribute Owned by France (at war with England) New Orleans controls the entire Mississippi River Haitian Revolution
makes the Jefferson is not sure if its Constitutional Uses his treatymaking power $15 million to double the size of the US Lewis & Clark hired to explore & find Northwest Passage Sacajawea brought on as guide Reach Pacific in Nov. 1805 I. RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812
Results of the war included: Andrew Jackson as a war hero End of the Federalist Party Era of Good Feelings Economic growth A sense that the US was a strong, expanding nation Nationalism B. NATIONALISM SHAPES FOREIGN POLICY
James Monroe was elected president in 1816 Nationalism was a priority for the growing US Signs a treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory B. NATIONALISM SHAPES FOREIGN POLICY
Relations with Spain (1817Florida belonged to Spain) United States sent Andrew Jackson and a small army down to the Georgia-Florida border to stop the Indian & outlaw raids Jackson is NOT supposed to attack the Spanish. So, he invaded Florida. AdamsOnis Treaty (1819): Spain gave up Florida for $5
million and a US promise to stay out of Texas What is the main idea of this political cartoon? B. THE MONROE DOCTRINE Other European powers were planning to (re)take their colonies in the Caribbean and Latin America. In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe
made it clear to Europe: Dont mess with the Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine) The American continents should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers. Monroe Doctrine The US would see any attempt by Europe to
take any country in the Western Hemisphere as a threat to its own peace and safety Nations in the Western Hemisphere were just different from nations in Europe, (republics, not monarchies). The United States would not interfere in European affairs.
THE AGE OF JACKSON Andrew Jacksons election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy Andrew Jackson: Hero or Villain?
Born in 1767 in NC Orphaned at 13 no formal education Emotional, Arrogant and Passionate - always ready to duel Defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 & the British at New Orleans in 1815 Took Florida and Claimed it for the US in 1819 Loved by his soldiers who called him
Old Hickory Distrusted the rich and powerful The Election of 1824: The Corrupt Bargain
Jackson ran in a 4-way race for Pres in 1824 (all the same party!) Even though Jackson won the popular vote, he didnt receive a majority of electoral votes. Sent to the House of Reps to choose the President Henry Clay gives his support to JQ Adams and the House chooses Adams as President Adams names Clay Sec. of State 2 weeks later.hmmmm AJ is furious: The Corrupt Bargain ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON
Jackson, hero of the common man, won election in 1828 in part because the right to vote had been expanded to more citizens In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams, 350,000 white males voted In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted in the nastiest campaign ever.
Many of the new voters supported Jackson who also won re-election in 1832 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY As part of his political philosophy, Jackson sought to grant political power to the common people: Age of the Common Man Jackson rewarded his own
supporters with government jobs. This is called The Spoils System. Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and political allies and fired the rich and powerful elites. The age of the common man was characterized by
heightened emphasis on equality in the political process for adult white males (rich white guys) the rise of interest group politics and sectional issues a changing style of campaigning political parties tried to appeal to folks (free food, kissing babies) increased voter participation. Politics started to look like what we know today. Do you think these changes were good or bad for the nation? INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - 1830 Jacksons Native American Policy
Indian Removal Act of 1830 Forced resettlement of Native Americans (Cherokee and others) from their homes in the SE to Oklahoma and lands west of the Mississippi River Bureau of Indian Affairs created to oversee resettlement Many forced onto reservations The Cherokee claimed the relocation was wrong and it went to the supreme court. Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokee Tribe. Jacksons response
Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it INDIAN REMOVAL - 1830 Forced relocation of the Cherokee tribe. Before the journey was over of the tribe perished. Reflected Jacksons personal apathy toward Native Americans TARIFF OF ABOMINATION
THE NORTH THE SOUTH TARIFFS In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816 Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, a Tariff of Abominations, and blamed it for economic problems in the South
NULLIFICATION THREAT In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jacksons VP from S.C.), developed the Theory of Nullification South Carolinians argued that states could nullify the Tariff of 1832 and other acts of Congress if they found them to be unconstitutional.
Nullification would declare the law void within the state. Jackson threatened to send federal troops to SC JACKSONS BANK WAR Jackson opposed the National Bank run by the rich and powerful.
He vetoed its charter and withdrew all the federal $$. He created Pet Banks run by Dems and his friends Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president His opponents formed a new party the Whigs PANIC OF 1837
In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency He inherited problems from the Bank Wars Jacksons Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841 Jacksons Legacy: Hero or Villain? The GOOD
More democratic involvement in Government Looked out for the interests of the common man Strong Executive Power Massive Voter Turnout Sparked Re-Creation of 2 Party System The BAD The Spoils System Banking Instability Excessive Check of the Supreme Court Greater Sectionalism Result of Split with Calhoun The UGLY Native American Policy
Trail of Tears C. ECONOMIC NATIONALISM: REGIONS CREATE DIFFERENCES The Northeast continued to develop industry while the South and West continued to be more agricultural The Industrial Revolution reached America by the earlymid 19th century New England first to embrace
factory system, especially in textile (fabric) mills SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an agricultural power Eli Whitneys invention of the Cotton Gin (1793) made producing cotton even more
profitable The South became a Cotton Kingdom More labor was needed 1790 = 700,000 slaves 1820 = 1,500,000 slaves Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from seeds BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM Economic differences created political tension between North & South
Tariffs (again!) As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together House Speaker Henry Clays American Plan called for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an improved infrastructure to help travel: the Erie Canal
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a free state Henry Clay organized a compromise in which
Missouri was slave but Maine would be free Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30 north latitude HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT COMPROMISER MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820 MANIFEST DESTINY
In the 1840s many Americans believed that their movement westward was predestined by God Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand from sea to shining sea from the Atlantic to the Pacific Westward expansion was also helped by: Cotton gin how? Roads and canals how?
UNITED STATES EXPANSION BY 1853 - MANIFEST DESTINY TEXAS Texas was a province in Spanish Mexico. Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821 and Texas was theirs. In the 1820s, Mexican officials offered land to Americans to make the area
more stable Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas trouble started TEXAS Stephen Austin established an American colony in Mexico.
Conflicts grew between Mexicans and Americans in Texas. One issue was the slaves that many Americans had brought with them. Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829. REMEMBER THE ALAMO
THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to force Texans to obey Mexican law. In 1836, there was an armed revolt of American Texans against Mexican rule. American forces moved into a mission known as the Alamo. After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls and slaughtered all 187 Americans
MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR In 1844 President James Polk, eagerly wanted to annex Texas as part of the U.S. Negotiations failed (remember the balance?) and U.S. troops moved into Mexican territory America victories soon followed,
and in 1848 Mexican leader Santa Anna admitted defeat Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed U.S. gets presentday Texas, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and parts of Colorado and New Mexico MEXICAN PRESIDENT SANTA ANNA CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH
After gold was discovered at Sutters Mill, migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850 Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became known as Forty-niners By 1857, the total amount of gold mined in California topped $2,000,000,000 NEW INVENTIONS HELP ECONOMY
By 1854, 23,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed the country 1837 Samuel Morse invented the Telegraph Railroads were becoming faster and more numerous by 1830 surpassing canals as # 1 means of transport Robert Fulton invented the Steamboat and by 1830, 200 were on the Mississippi John Deeres Plow and Cyrus McCormicks Reaper improved agriculture
THE MARKET REVOLUTION: The first half of the 19th century in America, brought vast changes to technology, transportation, and production Known as the Market Revolution, people increasingly bought and sold goods rather than make them for
themselves A 19th century market STOP HERE WORKERS SEEK BETTER CONDITIONS In 1834, Lowell, Massachusetts textile workers went on strike after their wages were lowered one example of the dozens of strikes in the U.S. in the
1830s and 1840s Several industries formed the National Trade Union in 1834 in hopes of bettering their conditions STRIKES AND UNIONS BECAME MORE NUMEROUS AFTER 1830 REFORMING AMERICAN SOCIETY: SECTION 5
The Second Great Awakening spread Christianity through revival meetings Another growing religious group was the Unitarians who emphasized reason as path to perfection Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Unitarian preacher who developed Transcendentalism These and other religions
became the impetus for reforming society RALPH WALDO EMERSON THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT 1820s: Abolitionist movement to free African Americans from slavery arose Leader was a white radical named William
Lloyd Garrison Abolitionist called for immediate emancipation of all slaves FREDERICK DOUGLASS: AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADER Freed slave, Frederick Douglass escaped from bandage and became an eloquent abolitionist (critic of slavery) leader
He began an anti-slavery newspaper called, Northstar named after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom TURNERS REBELLION Turner plans his rebellion The vast majority of AfricanAmericans were enslaved in the South and were
subjected to constant degradation Some rebelled against their condition Most famous revolt was led by Virginia slave Nat Turner Turner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60 whites he was caught and executed WOMEN AND REFORM
From abolition to education, women worked actively in all reform movements Throughout the 1800s opportunity for women to become educated increased 1833: Oberlin College became first coed institution WOMENS RIGHTS MOVEMENT EMERGES
Reform movements of the 19th century spurred the development of a Womens movement For example, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott had both been ardent abolitionists In 1848, more than 300 women participated in a Womens Right convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y.
Two pioneers in womens rights: Elizabeth Cady Stanton (left) and Susan B. Anthony
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