Chapter 34 The Great War Rise of Nationalism Nationalism caused competition between nations. Germany competed with Britain for industrial
dominance. Other countries had territorial disputes over lands such as Alsace-Lorraine and the Balkans. Nationalism was spreading all across the European continent What is Nationalism? What is Self-Determination?
Independence occurring in many countries Belgium in 1830 Unification of Germany 1871
The Ottoman Empire was shrinking Controlled the Balkans since the 15th century Austria and Russia responsible for the slicing away of Ottoman Territories in Europe Austria-Hungary was dealing with Slavs Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Russia promoted Pan-Slavism Movement that stressed the ethnic and cultural kinship of these different groups Russia did this to hopefully weaken the Austro-Hungarian Empire for future annexation into the Russian Empire National Rivalries Nationalism led to the economic
competition of European powers Competed for Foreign Markets, and were locked in Tariff Wars What is a Tariff? Biggest Rivalry was
between Great Britain and Economic Jealousy Leads to Tension In the late 1800s, Great Britain produced almost 32% of the worlds industrial output At the same time,
Germany produced only 13% By 1914: Britains production fell to 14%, which was about the same as
Germanys This close proximity in production led to a strained relationship Growth of Militarism
Rivalries led to an arms race. To be truly great, a nation needed a powerful military. The nations had large standing armies and the
Naval Race Both Britain and Germany felt that the most important aspect during a time of war was Naval Power Germany announced a
program to strengthen and build up a navy Caused Britain to build super ships known as dreadnoughts Imperialism The quest for colonies sometimes pushed European
nations to the brink of war. Germany and France nearly fought over Morocco twice. Rivalry and mistrust between the countries deepened. Tangled Alliances The rivalries led to the
creation of several military alliances. They were meant to keep peace, but instead helped push the continent into war. The Triple Alliance= Germany and AustriaHungary (the Dual
Alliance) plus Italy. In 1887, Germany also had a treaty with Russia, Austria-Hungarys enemy. When Kaiser Wilhelm II
took over Germany, he let the treaty with Russia lapse. Russia responded by making an alliance with France.
Britain was upset by the military growth of Germany and made an entente with France and Russia. Triple Entente=Britain, France, and Russia.
Entente did not bind them to fight for each other, but they would not fight against each other. Crisis in the Balkans With a long history of ethnic clashes, the Balkans
were known as the powder keg of Europe. Nationalism led groups of people there to break away from the Ottoman Serbia: wanted all the Slavs was supported by Russia Austria-Hungary was threatened
by them Both Russia and Austria-Hungary wanted to control Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina: taken over by Austria-
Hungary had large Slavic population Serbia was very upset but could not do anything about it The Spark to the Powder Keg Archduke of Austria-Hungary
Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophie were shot on June 28, 1914. He was the heir to the throne. The killer was Gavrilo Princip, a 19 year-old and member of the Black Hand. On
July 23, Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia was to suppress all anti-Austrian (and Pan-Slav) publications, societies and propaganda. Serbia was to dismiss all anti-Austrian officials objected by Austria. Austrian police and officials were to enter Serbia and to take part in the Serbian police force in order to carry out the suppression of anti-Austrian activities and investigations concerning the Sarajevo murders.
On July 28, Austria declared war. Russia Serbia. mobilized its troops to support
The Central Powers Triple Alliance Germany AustriaHungary Italy The Allies The
Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia Plans of Attack Each country had their own ideas on how the war would be won
The French strategy was called Plan XVII Entailed a lot of offensive maneuvers Basically it was an all out ATTACK Would result in massive casualties that the French didnt think of The Schlieffen Plan Germanys idea to knock out the French quickly and then focus on Russia Entailed moving 180,000 soldiers and supplies into France by way of Belgium
The Schlieffen Plan How long will the war last? When the war began many military strategists felt that it would be over quickly The Germans were so confident that they said:
We will be home by Christmas The idea of a short war quickly went away when the fronts were formed in which modern weapons ended the lives of millions Mutual Butchery
With the promise of a short war, over 20 million men left for the fronts of World War I Believed that God was on their side Defense was not thought about by military
leaders, only thoughts of assaults and swift triumphs The Germans march towards Paris halted at the Marne River This location become known as the western front Next 3 years, the battle lines hardly changed at all The Western Front Schlieffen Plan failed by
September 1914. First Battle of the Marne: British and French troops push Germans back, September 5-12 Germany had to fight on two fronts. The Western Front On the Western Front, in
northern France, troops from both sides dug trenches and there was a stalemate. Battle of Verdun: February to December 1916, over half a million casualties, Germans gained 4 miles, They shall not The Western Front Battle
of Somme: July to November 1916, over a million casualties, Britain gained only 6 miles Trench Warfare Vast system of deep trenches Usually about 10 feet deep, fortified with wood or sandbags
Barbed wire barrier in front Mud, rats, lice, no fresh food, little sleep Trench Warfare No mans land=area between opposing trenches Front line trenches were dug in a zigzag pattern
Christmas Truce in 1914 Land gains were very small All Quiet of the Western Front Novel by Erich Maria Remarque who served in the German army in World War I Considered the greatest novel on WWI It follows the narrator, Paul
Baumer, from eager recruit to disillusioned veteran. In one part of the story, he is trapped in a New Weapons Warfare Technology Rapid-fire machine gun Long-range artillery Flamethrower
Poison gas Tanks Zeppelins Airplanes Submarines gun Tremendous Amounts of Casualties Example:
Battle of Verdun French- 315,000 dead Germans- 280,000 dead The amount of casualties was due to the offensive nature of battle and the new technology machine gun The Eastern Front
German and Russian border Battle of Tannenberg: August 1914, Russian army (125,000)crushed by Germans in just 6 days, swamp Battle of Limanowa: December 1914, Austrians pushed Russians out of Austria-Hungary Russia was least industrialized of the Allies. They kept sending troops though
to keep Germany split between two The Southern Front Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and helped defeat Serbia. Romania joined Allies but was crushed by the Central Powers. In 1915, Italy switched sides. Italians fought against Austrians
along the Isonzo River. Italy needed help from other Allies to keep the Austrians out of Italy. War Around the World Japan joined the Allies and used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and islands in the Pacific, issued the Twenty-One
Demands to China. The Ottoman Turks joined the Central Powers and helped cut off Allied supply lines to Russia through the Dardanelles. War Around the World Turks also fought Russia. Christian
Armenians were killed or deported from Turkey because they helped the Russians The Arabs revolted against Turkish rule. British Colonel T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) helped lead the Arabs. War Around the World British
and French colonies were asked to fight. German colonies in Africa and Asia were overran. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand sent troops to fight for Britain. U.S. Enters the War We
sold supplies to Britain, then gave loans 1915---sinking of Lusitania by German submarines, 128 Americans killed 1917---Zimmerman Note deciphered Change in public opinion from antiwar to pro-war U.S. involvement turned the tide of war towards Allied victory Propaganda
WWI was the first wide ranging use of propaganda. Usually depicted the enemy as inhuman and savages
An End to the War to End All Wars A conservative estimate: 15 million dead and 20 million wounded Armistice Day: November 11, 1918 (Veterans Day) Peace treaties would follow
The Paris Peace Conference 1919, the Victorious powers met in Paris to arrange the postwar settlement George Clemenceau (France), Woodrow Wilson (US), and Lloyd George(Britain) led deliberations
Wilson proposed his 14 points that included removal of economic barriers, formation of the League of Nations, freedom of navigation Treaty of Versailles---but other treaties too Germany Gets the Blame Germany received the blame for WWI
Required to accept sole responsibility and guilt for causing the war Settlement limited the size of the German army to 100,000 Required to pay reparations
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