Chapter 35 The End of the Cold War and the Shape of a New Era ...

Ms. Sheets University High School AP World History Economic conditions in USSR deteriorated in the 1980s led to the collapse of communism in 1991 Industrial production dropped 1985 onward: new USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev led intensive reform with three parts Glasnost (openness): allowed Soviets to openly discuss the government, and even criticize it. People appreciated this, but it resulted in hostility toward Gorbachev Perestroika (economic restructuring): allow private

ownership; decentralize government control of industry and agriculture. Goal: Open the USSR into fuller participation in the world economy; allow foreign investments; produce consumer goods 1. Democratization Created a Congress with elected representatives and a position of President selected by Congress; abolished Communist monopoly on elections Eastern Europe pushed for greater independence and social reforms from the USSR as the Soviets grew weaker.

Gorbachev declared any nation has the right to decide its fate by itself. 1988: Poland adopted a noncommunist government. 1989: Czechoslovakia separated into Czech Republic and Slovakia. 1989: East Germany displaced its communist government and dismantled the Berlin Wall. By 1990, both Germanys are united. An attempted coup in 1991 threatened Gorbachevs presidency; Boris Yeltsin becomes leader.

1991: Yeltsin proclaimed the end of the Soviet Union, and he became the President of Russian Federation. Communist Party ended Fall of USSR led to new independent states in eastern Europe. Yeltsin tried to incorporate private enterprises, but faced resistance; relied on American loans Yeltsin resigned and was replaced by Vladimir Putin in 2009. Crime, economic weakness, and tensions in Balkans and Ukraine continue. Tensions with Muslim-dominated regions

When the Soviet Union collapsed, several ethnic and religious clashes occurred (primarily in Yugoslavia) Yugoslavia had long-standing tensions among Serbs, Albanians, and Croats, as well as Orthodox, Catholic, Muslim. Fighting began in Bosnia, then moved to Kosovo. 2004: Republics of Serbia and Montenegro created 2008: Republic of Kosovo created

Violence and genocide ended when NATO intervened. Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988): Iraq (Saddam Hussein) annexed oil-rich provinces in Iranian west. 1988: Iran called for an armistice; Iran in shambles and isolated from the Western powers, who supported Iraq. Persian Gulf War (1990): Iraq, under Hussein, invaded oil-rich Kuwait.

US-led UN forces counter Iraq 2003: Invasion of Iraq, led by US and UK, to depose Hussein Believed to have weapons of mass destruction and ties to al-Qaeda Captured in 2003; hung in 2006 Israeli-Palestinian conflict persisted. Tensions between India and Pakistan escalated in Kashmir, a disputed territory. The end of the Cold War showed a larger trend in

the world: the spread of multiparty democracies with free elections. The democratic wave hit Spain, Portugal and Greece in the 1970s, then Latin America, then Asia, then Africa. Only China, North Korea, and parts of the Middle East withstood democratic governments. The USA voiced support for democracy under President Jimmy Carter and into the 1990s, but supported authoritarian regimes in Egypt, Pakistan, Uzbekistan that promised support against terrorism. US military commitments remained high after the Cold War.

US heavily militarizes; many countries increased their militaries in response. The growth and success of the European Union is a potential counterweight to the USA. American interests have been targets of terrorist attacks since the 1960s. US policy diverted to the war on terrorism. US turned to Iraq and Afghanistan following September 11th, 2001 attacks. Iraq: accused of amassing weapons of mass destruction; evidence proved largely erroneous Afghanistan: attack topples Islamic fundamentalist regime that harbored Al Qaeda

1.Define glasnost and perestroika 2.In general, why do many large Eastern European countries break up during the 1980s and 1990s? 3.How would modern American foreign policy be defined?

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