Chapter 4

4 Chapter Electrici ty Chapter 4 Tour: Electricity 1 Principles of Electricity Pages 91-98 Define 10 major terms used in electricity Describe the safety measures to be followed when using electrical appliances 2 Electricity in Cosmetology Pages 99-108 Explain the 3 kinds of effects created by electric current during cosmetology services List 3 kinds of effects created by electric current during electrotherapy and light therapy treatments

Vocabulary of of Vocabulary Electricity Electricity 1 Principles of of Principles Electricity Electricity Electric Electric Current Current Safety

Safety Measures Measures Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Where were you when the lights went out? Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Vocabulary of Electricity Click on a card to view the definition of a key term. Click on a definition to reveal the key term. Electricity Load

Form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes Technical name for any electrically powered appliance Electric Current Conductor Movement of

electricity along a path called a conductor Material that allows electricity to flow through it easily Vocabulary of Electricity Click on a card to view the definition of a key term. Click on a definition to reveal the key term. Insulator Volt Material that does not

allow flow of electric current Unit of electric pressure Amp Unit of electric strength Ohm Unit of electric resistance Vocabulary of Electricity

Click on a card to view the definition of a key term. Click on a definition to reveal the key term. Watt Measure of how much electrical energy is being used Electrotherapy Application of electrical currents during skin treatments Vocabulary of Electricity silver

copper graphite carbon Conductor Insulator Material that best transports electricity Material that does not allow a current to pass through it water-containing ions wood plastic

rubber alcohol pure distilled water In a salon, most currents are carried by cords which are copper wire (conductors) insulated by varying amounts of rubber. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Vocabulary of Electricity Cords on appliances should be kept straight and free of knots, kinks and tangles to prevent breaks. Warning! A break in any electrical cord can put you or your client in contact with an active current, causing

electrical shock. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Vocabulary of Electricity AMP VOLT OHM Strength Pressure Resistance Power box to Measures how Impedance house supplies hard electrons Measures how amps are pushed by difficult it is to the source Conductors

push electrons 110/220 volts carry limited through a number of 220 volt has V conductor amps prongs on plug OHMs rating = Amp rating is Large motors resistance to the number of need 220 volts the motion of electrons electrons in a flowing on a line conductor WATT HERTZ

Amount Used 1 watt = small amount of energy Blow dryer = 1000 watts per second 1000 watts = one kilowatt Frequency Hertz = Hz Number of cycles, per second, a generator alternates the current from the source 1 hertz = one cycle/second

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Vocabulary of Electricity Beyond the Book The flow of electricity in a human produces violent muscle contractions that prevent the person from letting go. Receiving a shock may cause the heart to lose its coordination or rhythm. http://www.jlab.org Electric Current Two Forms:

DC Direct Current (DC) Electrons move at an even rate in only one direction AC Alternating Current (AC) Electrons flow first in one direction and then the other Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current Special Instruments:

DC Converter AC Changes direct current to alternating current Rectifier AC Changes alternating current to direct current DC

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current Sources of Electric Current Generator Produces alternating current Power source most often used in salons Uses mechanical energy to produce flow of electrons AC Battery Has a positive (+) and

a negative (-) terminal Produces direct current only Electrons flow toward positive terminal in a circuit DC Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current How Electric Current is Produced Two conditions necessary for an electric current: Source Generator producing alternating current

Battery producing direct current Circuit Closed path through which electrons travel Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current How Electric Current is Produced Electron Flow Closed Electrons leave the source and operate an appliance Switch is on

Open Broken path of electron flow Switch is off Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current How Electric Current is Produced Parallel Wiring Powers several loads at once or at different times Install only parallel wiring in a salon

Series Wiring Runs all loads at the same time Circuit travels from one load to the next Example would be Christmas lights Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current Overload and Short Circuit Overload Too many appliances on one circuit being operated at the same time More current flows than the line is designed to carry Takes 1 amp on the circuit to operate every 100 watts of an appliance 1,000 watt blow dryer needs a 10-amp circuit

Risk of fire occurs when an extension cord with multiple plugs attaches 4 or 5 appliances to one wall socket Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electric Current Overload and Short Circuit Short Circuit A foreign conductor comes in contact with wire carrying current to a load Commonly occurs in thermal styling tools due to twisting and bending of cords Example: dropping a blow dryer in water Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity

Electric Current Beyond the Book Thomas Edison invented the first commercially practical incandescent electric lamp. The lamp itself was perfected on October 21, 1879 which put into circuit the first bulb embodying the principles known as the "Edison modern incandescent lamp." This bulb maintained its incandescence for over 40 hours. http://www.thomasedison.com/Inventions.htm Safety Measures Fuse Device containing a fine metal wire that allows current to flow through it

Connected directly to the circuits in the power box Wire melts to break current if overload occurs CANNOT be reused Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures Circuit Breaker Reusable device that breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs

Connects directly to the circuits in the power box Contains two pieces of metal that make contact with each other Separates the pieces to break the circuit if the flow of current is too high Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures Grounding Wire Designed to protect you when operating

certain kinds of appliances 3-wire system Special wire prevents excess flow of current from going to user Any appliance requiring this protection has a three-prong plug Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures Shock If a person comes in contact with electric current: 1 Knock person out of circuit by using an insulator (broom, plastic brush or plastic garbage pail)

2 Unplug appliance using insulator to avoid circuit 3 Rush to power box and turn off all circuit breakers Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures Local Shock Passes Passesthrough through aa small smallpart

part of of the thebody body Procedure 1. Immerse burn in cold water immediately; wait until the burn is completely cold and swelling has stopped 2. Blot dry and apply an antiseptic cream 3. Take person to the hospital if burn is severe Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures General Shock Passes

Passesthrough through the theentire entirebody body Procedures 1. Break the circuit before touching person 2. Dial 911 3. Start CPR; continue until emergency team arrives Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures Emergency Procedures for Electrical Fires

Remember: DO NOT PUT WATER ON IT Turn off the circuit Smother the fire with rug, towel, powder, or a fire extinguisher Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Safety Measures Beyond the Book Some common electrical terms were named after people. Mary Louise Amp

James Watt Myron Volt Bob Transformer Principles of Electricity Self-Check On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions. True or False 1. Materials that best transport electricity are called conductors. 2. Materials that DO NOT allow a current to pass through them are called prisms. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check

True or False 3. The unit of electric strength is called an amp. 4. The unit of electric pressure is called an ohm. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check 5. The two forms of electrical current are: a. AC and DC b. AD and BC c. AB and CD d. hot and cold 6. The name for the measure of how much electrical energy is being used is called ___________. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity

Principles of Electricity Self-Check 7. What type of shock passes through the nervous system? a. local b. direct c. indirect d. general 8. A shock that passes through a small part of the body is called a _________________. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Know Chart As you correct your answers, evaluate your progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns. Place correct answers from the Self-Check under the I Know column. Then place incorrect answers under the I Need to Study column.

CHART KNOW I Need to Study: I Know: 1. 1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. 4.

5. 5. 6. 6. 7. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check Now check your work. True or False Observe each of the False statements become True. 1. Materials that best transport electricity

are called conductors. True Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check True or False 2. Materials that DO NOT allow a current to pass through are called prisms. Insulators are materials that DO NOT False allow currents to pass through them. Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check

True or False 3. The unit of electric strength is called an amp. True Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check True or False 4. The unit of electric pressure is called an ohm. False A volt is a unit of electric pressure. An ohm is a unit of electric resistance. Chapter 4.1

Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check 5. The two forms of electrical current are: a. AC and DC b. AD and BC c. AB and CD d. hot and cold 6. The name for the measure of how much electrical energy is being used is called ___________. watt Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Principles of Electricity Self-Check 7. What type of shock passes through the nervous system?

a. local b. direct c. indirect d. general 8. A shock that passes through a small part of the body is called a _________________. local shock Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Lessons Learned Vocabulary of Electricity

FACE TH E FACTS Electricity is a form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes Electric current is the movement of electricity along a path called a conductor Load is the technical name of any electrically powered appliance Conductor is a material that allows electricity to flow through it easily Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity

Lessons Lessons Learned Learned FACE TH E FACTS Vocabulary of Electricity

Insulator is material that does not allow the flow of electric current Amp is a unit of electric strength Volt is a unit of electric pressure Ohm is a unit of electric resistance Watt is a measure of how much electrical energy is being used Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Lessons Learned Safety Measures FACE TH E FACTS

Safety devices are installed in many appliances and buildings because of the possibility of overloads and short circuits Electrotherapy Electrotherapy is the application of electrical currents during treatments to skin Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity ITS 2 U! Make a diagram showing the flow of electrons from a source to an electric appliance commonly used in the salon.

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity ITS 2 U! Example Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity Electricity Effects of of Effects Electric Electric Current Current

2 Electricity In In Electricity Cosmetology Cosmetology Electrotherap Electrotherap yy Light Therapy Therapy Light Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Effects of Electric Current

How is electricity used in the picture below? Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Effects of Electric Current Click on the card to view the definition of the key term. Click on the definition to reveal the key term. Galvanic Current Tesla Direct current of low voltage and high amperage Alternating

current; known as violet-ray Faradic Current Radiation Alternating current, stimulates nerve and muscle tissue Transfer of heat through a vacuum Effects of Electric Current Click on the card to view the definition of the key term. Click on the definition to reveal the key term.

Visible Light Ultraviolet Rays Portion of electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see Shortwavelength rays that can be damaging to the skin Infrared Light

Heat-producing invisible light beyond red on the spectrum Phoresis The process of forcing acid or alkali into the skin by applying current Effects of Electric Current Click on the card to view the definition of the key term. Click on the definition to reveal the key term. Sinusoidal Current

Electrotherapy Alternating current; produces muscle contractions Application of special currents that have certain effects on the skin Anode Cathode Positively charged electrode

Negatively charged electrode Effects of Electric Current Click on the card to view the definition of the key term. Click on the definition to reveal the key term. Anaphoresis Cataphoresis Forcing of alkaline solution into skin with a negative electrode Forcing of

acidic solution into skin with a positive electrode Conduction Transfer of heat via direct contact Convection Transfer of heat via liquid or gas Effects of Electric Current Click on the card to view the definition of the key term. Click on the definition to reveal the key term.

Light Therapy Production of beneficial effects on the body through the use of light rays or waves White light Visible, combination light that can be broken into its wavelengths by a prism Effects of Electric Current Heating

More resistance equals more heat Heating elements heat up with the flow of current Mechanical or Magnetic Push-pull effect causes motor to turn Electrochemical Electric current travels through a water-based solution to produce relaxing or stimulating effects

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Effects of Electric Current Beyond the Book If your hair stands up in a storm, positive charges are rising through you and reaching toward the negatively charged part of the storm. That's not a good sign! Your best bet is to get yourself indoors immediately. http://news.nationalgeographic.com Electrotherapy

Application of special currents (modalities) that have certain ALERT! effects on the skin A person with any Electrode safe contact point through potentially restrictive medical condition which current can pass to client should always consult a physician before receiving electrotherapy treatment. Chapter 4.2

Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Galvanic Current Oldest form of electrotherapy Direct current of low voltage and high amperage A special appliance is necessary to convert AC to DC Chemical effects are caused by passing the current through acid or alkaline solutions and/or by passing current through body tissues and fluids

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Phoresis Process of forcing an acid or alkali into the skin by applying current to the chemical Most typical application of Galvanic current Referred to as bleaching the skin Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy

Anaphoresis Uses a negative (-) pole to force alkaline solutions into the skin Produces alkaline reaction Increases blood flow Softens tissues Stimulates nerves Chapter 4.2 Electricity

Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Cataphoresis Uses a positive (+) pole to force acidic solutions into the skin Produces acidic reaction Slows blood flow Hardens tissues

Soothes nerves Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Galvanic Current Apply active electrode to the client Instruct client to hold the inactive electrode Wrap both electrodes in moist cotton Never use more than one milliampere of current Also used for iontophoresis and desincrustation NEVER

NEVERuse usethe theGalvanic Galvanic current currentover overan anarea area having havingmany many broken brokencapillaries. capillaries. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Faradic Current Alternating current, interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction

Stimulates nerve and muscle tissue Improves blood circulation Improves muscle tone Stimulates hair growth Increases glandular activity Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Faradic Current Indirect Method

Most frequently used faradic current application Second electrode is held by client or attached to lower neck Facial massage is performed when the current reaches desired level Salon professional wears wrist band with moistened electrode Salon professional places fingers on clients face before turning on current to prevent shock Chapter 4.2

Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Faradic Current Direct Method Place both electrodes on clients skin Current travels through the motor nerves between the electrodes, causing muscle stimulation BE CERTAIN THAT THEY NEVER TOUCH Turn on current and slowly increase only after electrodes are in place

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Sinusoidal Current Alternating current with a mechanical effect, much like the faradic current that produces muscle contraction Use the Indirect Method application only Penetrates more deeply Provides greater stimulation to treated area Should not be used on unhealthy and/or broken skin

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Tesla Current Alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat Known as the violet-ray Results in relaxation or stimulation, depending on method of application Improves blood circulation Increases rate of metabolism

Increases sebaceous glandular activity Does not produce muscle contractions Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Tesla Current Direct Application Apply electrode directly to the clients scalp or face Indirect Application Active electrode is held by client while the cosmetologist manually stimulates the area being treated

Turn off current before exchanging electrode with client General Electrification Hand electrode to client before activating current Switch power on; tingling or vibrating effect is felt by client Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Tesla Current

Cosmetology uses include: Dry skin facial treatment Indirect Application Dry scalp Indirect Application Mild acne and/or blackhead facial treatment Direct Application Scalp treatment Direct Application Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy

Precautions General Always read manufacturers directions and follow them carefully Electrodes should never touch each other Galvanic, Faradic & Sinusoidal Current Never take current over 1 milliampere Make sure current is off before beginning indirect application and before breaking contact with client Sinusoidal treatment should not exceed 30 minutes Chapter 4.2

Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Precautions Tesla Current Begin with mild current, increase slowly Keep client out of contact with metal during treatment Limit treatment duration to approximately 5 minutes If you use cream it should contain NO alcohol Turn current on AFTER client is holding electrode

Turn off current before removing electrode Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Heat Energy Heat always moves from a hotter body to a cooler body and can be transferred by: Conduction direct contact Convection liquid or gas Radiation through a vacuum Effects of heat:

Mild relaxes muscles, increases blood circulation Intense destroys cells and tissues Pyrolysis is the chemical breakdown of the skin Chapter 4.2 caused by intense heat Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electrotherapy Beyond the Book Take a look at some of the first technologies used by the father of electrical energy, Nikola Tesla. http://www.electrotherapymuseum.com

Light Therapy Production of beneficial effects on the body through treatments using light rays or waves. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy Electromagnetic radiation is the wave-like patterns caused by the transfer of heat energy by radiation. Wavelength measurement of waves from crest to crest

Shorter wavelength = more energy (x-ray) Longer wavelength = less energy (heat lamps) Electromagnetic spectrum range of all the wavelengths produced by radiant energy Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy Visible Light Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see Waves are either absorbed or reflected

Reflected waves are interpreted as color Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy Visible Light White light combination light that is broken into individual wavelengths by a prism Visible spectrum

Longest wavelengths produce red Shortest wavelengths produce violet Two kinds of salon lights produce white light: Fluorescent bluer tones or cooler casts Incandescent redder tones or warmer casts Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy Invisible Light Eighty percent (80%) of sunlight is composed of invisible rays beyond red (infrared)

Eight percent (8%) of natural sunlight is composed of invisible rays beyond violet (ultraviolet) Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy Infrared Light Produces heat Exposure times during a facial range from 5 to 15 minutes Place light at least 30 from the clients face MUST cover eyes with eye pads or protective eye forms Benefits include:

Increased circulation Increased skin gland secretions Relaxation of muscles Stimulation of cell and tissue activity Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy Ultraviolet Light Shorter wavelengths - more damaging than infrared rays

Positive effects on the skin Small doses tan the skin and aid in production of Vitamin D Kills bacteria that causes skin infections (germicidal) Promotes healing and is used in the treatment of acne Negative effects of overexposure Sunburned skin, damaged eyes, photochemically damaged hair Can result in skin cancer Tanning in excess causes dry, leathery skin, peeling, itching, wrinkling, sagging and permanent discoloration ALWAYS wear protective eyewear during UV therapy Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Light Therapy

Beyond the Book Winter Blues Symptoms: Low energy Excessive sleep Over-eating Weight gain Severe depression What to do? Doctors have learned to treat this seasonal depression and jet lag by using a simple device called a light box How it works? Sends images to the brain Eyes tell pineal gland (small pea-sized gland located in the brain) when the day is over

Gland induces drowsiness by secreting melatonin Influences moods, hunger and metabolism www.eyesite.ca Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions. True or False 1. Tesla is the direct current used in electrotherapy treatments. 2. Cataphoresis uses a positive electrode to force acidic solutions into the skin without breaking the skin. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology

Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check True or False 3. Treatment with light rays is called light therapy. 4. The chemical breakdown of the skin caused by intense heat is called vaporizing. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check 5. Which type of light can create blue or cool tones? a. invisible b. sunlight c. fluorescent d. incandescent 6. The average distance you should place an infrared lamp during a facial is about ______ inches. Chapter 4.2

Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check 7. Which of the following types of light has the shortest wavelength? a. red b. violet c. infrared d. ultraviolet 8. Overexposure to what type of light can result in skin cancer? a. visible b. ultraviolet c. fluorescent d. incandescent Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Know Chart

As you correct your answers, evaluate your progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns. Place correct answers from the Self-Check under the I Know column. Then place incorrect answers under the I Need to Study column. CHART KNOW I Need to Study: I Know: 1. 1. 2. 3. 2. 3.

4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology Principles of Electricity Self-Check Now check your work.

True or False Observe as each of the False statements become True. 1. Tesla is the direct current used in electrotherapy treatments. The direct current used in electrotherapy False treatments is galvanic current. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology Principles of Electricity Self-Check True or False 2. Cataphoresis uses a positive electrode to force acidic solutions into the skin without breaking the skin. True

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check True or False 3. Treatment with light rays is called light therapy. True Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check True or False 4. The chemical breakdown of the skin caused by intense heat is called vaporizing.

Pyrolysis is the chemical breakdown of False the skin caused by intense heat. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check 5. Which type of light can create blue or cool tones? a. invisible b. sunlight c. fluorescent d. incandescent 6. The average distance you should place an infrared lamp during a facial is about ______ inches. 30 Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology

Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check 7. Which of the following types of light has the shortest wavelength? a. red b. violet c. infrared d. ultraviolet 8. Overexposure to what type of light can result in skin cancer? a. visible b. ultraviolet c. fluorescent d. incandescent Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Lessons Learned Effects of Electric Current

FACE TH E FACTS Effects of electric current are heating, mechanical or magnetic and electrochemical Electrotherapy Electrotherapy is the application of special currents (modalities) that have certain effects on the skin Chapter 4.2 Electricity

Electricity In Cosmetology Lessons Learned FACE THE FACTS Electrotherapy: Galvanic Current Direct current of low voltage and high amperage Chemical effects are caused by passing the current though particular acid or alkaline solutions and/or passing current through body tissues and fluids

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Lessons Learned Electrotherapy: Faradic Current FACE TH E FACTS Alternating current, interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction Stimulates nerve and muscle tissue Electrotherapy: Sinusoidal Current

Alternating current with a mechanical effect Produces muscle contractions Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Lessons Learned FACE TH E FACTS Electrotherapy: Tesla Current

High frequency current known as violet ray Relaxation or stimulation, depending on method of application Does NOT produce muscle contractions Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Lessons Learned Light Therapy

FACE TH E FACTS Production of beneficial effects on the body through treatments using light rays or waves Visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans see The wavelengths that produce red are the longest waves of the visible spectrum Fluorescent and incandescent light are two kinds of light produced in the salon Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology

ITS 2 U! The following sound association activity can be used to help remember the differences between the types of electrotherapy used in the salon. 1. Galvanic current Make a low, steady hum sound. This will symbolize a direct current flowing in one, constant direction represented by the monotony of the low, steady hum. 2. Faradic current Make a high-pitched zit, zit sound similar to a high-speed drill used by a dentist. This is done to represent an alternating current which provides minimal penetration of the skin. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology ITS 2 U! The following sound association activity can be used to help remember the differences between the types of electrotherapy used in the salon.

3. Sinusoidal current Make a low, guttural zoot, zoot sound similar to many bull frogs in a swamp. This is done to represent an alternating current capable of producing deeper penetration of the skin. 4. Tesla current Blow out through the lips making a pluugh sound similar to that of a child playing with a car mimicking the car engine. Tesla is an alternating current able to cause vibration. Feel the vibration of your lips as you make the pluugh sound. Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology Electricity Self-Test On a sheet of paper numbered 1-10, answer the following questions. 1. The movement of electricity along a conductor is called: a. voltage b. wattage

c. conductance d. electric current Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 2. Materials such as glass and paper do not allow electricity to flow through them and are called: a. loads b. insulators c. open circuits d. closed circuits Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 3. An ampere is a unit of electric: a. pressure b. strength c. resistance

d. frequency Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 4. A volt is a unit of electric: a. pressure b. strength c. resistance d. frequency Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 5. A unit of electrical resistance is called a(n): a. ohm b. volt c. watt d. insulator

Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 6. The two forms of electrical current are: a. AB & DC b. AC & DC c. AD & BC d. hot & cold Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 7. Which of the following is NOT an effect of electric current? a. heating effect b. cooling effect c. magnetic effect d. electrochemical effect

Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 8. The direct current used in electrotherapy treatments is: a. Tesla b. Faradic c. Galvanic d. Sinusoidal Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 9. High frequency and alternating current are characteristics of which type of electrotherapy? a. Tesla b. Galvanic c. Sinusoidal

d. direct current Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test 10. Which type of light can create blue or cool tones? a. sunlight b. invisible c. fluorescent d. incandescent Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test Time to check the self-test 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. d. b. b. a. a. electric current insulators strength pressure ohm Chapter 4 Electricity Electricity Self-Test

Time to check the self-test 6. 7. 8. 9. b. b. c. a. AC & DC cooling effect Galvanic Tesla 10. c. fluorescent Chapter 4 Electricity

city i r t c e l E 4: Chapter Princ i pl e s o f Electric E le c it y t ric it y in Cosmeto logy In conclusion...

Using electricity safely = well-being o stylist and client

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