Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Interface Composition Objectives Explain what is involved in player-centric video game design. Outline the four key topics related to playercentric immersion that have universal application, with a focus on the human-computer interface. Analyze and understand the ways to apply the human-computer interface to game design. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Design The purpose of game design is to create an interactive environment that allows the player to become immersed in the game Immersion is the level to which the player feels he or she is experiencing the game Player-centric design involves Understanding the player Centering the game design on the player's wants and needs

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Design (Continued) The elements of player-centric design include

Audience Vicarious immersion Typical player interest Typical player dexterity Typical player mental acuity Audience sampling and surveys Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Design (Continued) The first step in player-centric design is to define

the audience A designer will use demographics to create a typical player profile The audience user interface is another critical game component Vicarious immersion is the game designer imagining to be in the place of the player Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Design (Continued)

Example of a player profile Player Profile Age: 17 Gender: Female Education level: 11th grade Family Income: Middle class Language: English Country: USA Likes: Puppies, cartoons, favorite color pink Dislikes: Scary dogs, thunder, green peppers Goodheart-Willcox Publisher

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Design (Continued) The gameplay should be aligned with the interest expressed by the typical player profile A player-centric design must take into

consideration the player dexterity to operate the interface and game controls The first few levels need to have challenges that help the player build muscle memory The typical player must have the mental acuity to complete game Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Design (Continued) The ultimate measure of success for any playercentric game is to test it on the audience

Testing should occur during game construction and into a full prototype Sampling in the form of surveys and focus groups may be used for testing Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Player-Centric Immersion Understanding the principles of player-centric design focuses the designer on the audience Four key topics related to player immersion have universal application Human-computer interface Elements of engagement Elements of interest

Balance elements Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Human Interface Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Immersion (Continued)

The human-computer interface (HCI) is the communication between the player and the game system Inputs are instructions from the player sent to the computer Outputs are the information that the computer sends to the player An input-interaction model includes the player controls and the programming Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Emotiv's New Neuro-Headset Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Player-Centric Immersion (Continued) The output-interaction model is the portion of the user interface that performs the action-fulfill commands It also provides feedback to the player

Game designers take advantage of the high speed of computers They create gameplay that includes animations, complex graphics, special effects, and other features Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design The basis of the human-computer interface is the user interface of the game

The eight golden rules of human-computer interface design are Strive for consistency Enable frequent users to use shortcuts Offer informative feedback Design dialogue to yield closure Offer simple error handling Permit easy reversal of actions Support internal focus of

control Reduce short-term memory load Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Special Effects Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design (Continued) Colors help maintain consistency throughout the display and between levels

A game should have Readable text Overall consistency of layout Functional consistency for inputs and outputs Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design (Continued) Examples of font styles

Goodheart-Willcox Publisher Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design (Continued) Shell menus are used for starting the game or for actions outside of gameplay A game typically has several checkpoints, usually after each difficult or time-consuming task has been completed

The player should receive some feedback, or output information, whenever an action is input Closure is built into the game using the structure and goals of the game Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design (Continued) It may be impossible to build a complex game system without any errors A timeout is when the game resets after a period

of player inactivity Error prevention must be designed into the game inputs An input device should be designed so it can be easily held and moved Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. History of the Controller Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design (Continued) The trigger pull on an input device must be sensitive enough to engage the control but not too sensitive All the inputs on the controller should be within easy reach for the player Video game designers should consider ways to reduce the player fatigue and repetitive-motion injuries

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Applying the Human-Computer Interface to Game Design (Continued) When players make input errors, they should be able to easily reverse, or undo, the errors Players should feel as if they are in control of the game Designers must try to reduce the amount of information the player must remember The game should provide in-game information for

the player to quickly recall objectives Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #1- A driving game improved memory and focus in older adults. Video Revving up brain skills

Video of gameplay Site for older adult game study Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #2: People who play action-base d games make decisions 25% fas ter. Activision / Call of Duty Ghosts

Fast-paced video games typically require quick thinking to avoid being killed. In reallife situations, active gamers have a better sense of what is going around them and are able to make decisions faster, according to scientists from the University of Rochester. In the one study, participants aged 18 to 25 were split into two groups. One group played 50 hours of the action video games Call of Duty 2 and Unreal Tournament, and the other group played 50 hours of the strategy game The Sims 2. The action game players made decisions 25% faster in a task unrelated to playing video games, without sacrificing accuracy. Action game players make more correct decisions per unit time. If you are a surgeon or you are in the middle of a battlefield, that can make all the difference, study researcher Daphne Bavelier said in a statement. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #3 - Video games improve vision. Another study, led by Daphne Bavelier of the University of Rochester, showed that video games improve vision by making players more sensitive to slightly different shades of color, known as contrast sensitivity. People who played action-based video games particularly first-person-shooter games were 58% better at perceiving fine differences in contrast, the researchers said. When people play action games, theyre changing the brains pathway responsible for visual processing, Bavelier said in a

statement. The training might be helping the visual system to make better use of the information it receives. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #4 - Surgeons improved their laparoscopic skills by playing video games. Playing video games on the Nintendo Wii improved skills needed for laparoscopic surgery, a procedure in which a thin tube with a camera is inserted into the abdomen to see organs on a screen, instead of cutting patients wide open.

The study, published in the journal PLOS One, found that doctors who spent one month playing either Wii Tennis, Wii Table Tennis, or a balloon warfare game called High Altitude Battle performed better in simulated tasks designed to test eye-hand coordination and movement precision. The Nintendo Wii may be adopted in lower-budget institutions or at home by younger surgeons to optimize their training on simulators before performing real procedures, the researchers concluded. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #5 Video games encourage physical activity.

Endless hours parked in front a computer screen generally does not lead to weight loss. But a new breed of video games, called exergames, that pair virtual worlds with exercise could get people who are less inclined to workout to start moving. Endocrinologist Stanley Hsia is currently studying whether people who play Dance Dance Revolution a game that requires players to move their feet in time with signals on a screen are at lower risk of type 2 diabetes than those who run on a treadmill. Video games may also be more effective at changing behaviour. In a study from the University of Indiana, people who received workout advice through a game called Second Life reported more positive changes in healthy eating and physical activity than people who went to a traditional gym, even though weight loss was the same in both groups. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. # 6 - Children with dyslexia had better reading ability after playing video games. A small study in the journal Current Biology found that playing action video games helped children with dyslexia read faster and with better accuracy. Twelve hours behind the controller improved childrens reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than one year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments, the researchers write. By improving attention span, video games lead to better reading skills

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #7 Video games can help burn victims manage pain. Researchers at the University of Washington are experimenting with virtual reality games as a way to distract burn victims from their pain. Being drawn into another world drains a lot of attentional resources, leaving less attention available to process pain signals, according to the universitys HITLab. In a preliminary case study, two patients with severe burns played

Nintendo games while their wounds were being treated. Both patients reported feeling significantly less pain while playing the game. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #8 Video games can teach us about biological processes. Video games are not just for entertainment. They can also help solve educational and scientific challenges, according to Stanford physicist Ingmar H. Riedel-Kruse, who designed a collection of action games to teach people about biological

processes. The games involve a single-celled organism contained inside a square fluid chamber. The player interacts or controls the living paramecia by applying electrical fields using a hand-held device that resembles a video game controller. Since the reaction of the paramecia is real and not based on simulations, the games can teach players about micro-organismal behaviors, diffusion, and other biophysical concepts, the authors write in a study published in the journal Lab on a Chip. They add: Students might be motivated to discuss and understand the observed phenomena in order to identify other winning strategies in such games. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

# 9 Video games can make us better people. Quandary Slow-moving strategy games can change our thinking behavior so that we can learn to make wiser, more ethical decisions in real-life scenarios. Thats the idea behind Quandary, a game that places human colonists on the Planet Braxos and requires the player, or captain, to help work out dilemmas among the settlers. Writing for Boston.com, Scot Osterweil, creative director at MITs Education Arcade explained: We dont believe that playing the game will automatically help players take better perspectives

in their own lives, but we think the game represents a playful way of introducing ideas that can be further developed through reflective conversation with others, and through additional activities provided on the website. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #10 Cancer patients who play video games have a more positive outlook.

Re-Mission is a third-person shooter game created by HopeLab to help young adults with cancer. In the game players control a nanobot named Roxxi who races through the human body fighting cancer with various weapons, such as the radiation gun. Players must also monitor patient health, learning about different forms of treatments and how they work along the way. In a trial of 375 patients, researchers found game players took their antibiotics more consistently and were more likely to adhere to chemotherapy treatments than others. The players also knew more about cancer and had a stronger belief in their own ability to reach goals while undergoing cancer therapy. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. #11 -Pre- schoolers who play video games have better motor skills A small study from Deakin University in Australia found that children ages three to six who played interactive games, like Wii, had better object motor skills than those who played noninteractive games. This includes skills like kicking, catching, throwing, and bouncing ball. Its likely that electronic games improve hand-eye coordination, but researchers also note that children who already have better

object motor skills could have been more drawn to interactive games in the first place. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Create a handicapped adaptive controller.. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Your Mission Create a controller for a child with limited upper body, hands, and arm movement. Create a controller for a child with limited upper body, hands, and arm movement. Controller has to be comfortable to hold and easy to for child to operate on their own without help. Use cardboard, form, or any other building materials available. Use a Makey-Makey kit to make the controller function. Select online PC game suitable for a child under the age of 10 and connect your controller. Present your prototype to class for peer evaluation.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Your Knowledge Which demographics data do you think is most important for constructing a typical player profile? How important do you think audience appeal is to the success of a video game? Explain your reasoning for this opinion. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

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