Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Prenatal, Birth, and Postnatal Periods A Remarkable Story Transaction between special organism Zygote Unique genetic code

Specialized Environment Species Typical Fertilization in fallopian tube (oviduct) Implantation in uterus At birth- billions of specialized cells capable of surviving in complex environment Three Prenatal Periods

Ovum-Germinal Period ~ 2nd - 14th day Embryonic Period ~2nd-8th week Fetal Period 8th -38th week

Ovum-Germinal Period Starts as Zygote in fallopian tube Mitosis produces duplication of cells 32 cell ball called morula

Blastula (Blastocyst) differentiates into: Embryoblast (Inner cell mass) develops into the embryo Trophoblast (Outer protective layer) Becomes amnion, chorio, placenta, allantois (umbilical cord) Ends at implantation in the uterus wall

Reproduction of Cells during Period of the Ovum Duplication of undifferentiated cells As cellular reproduction continues, differentiation begins By the time it enters uterus, two distinct masses have formed Embryoblast

The Blastula Inner cell mass becomes the embryo Trophoblast Outer layer of cells becomes

fetal membranes amnion chorion allantois Blastula (or blastocyst)- the embryoblast & trophoblast The BlastulaBasic Structures

Implantation in Uterus

Hormones prepare uterine environment Blastula sends out tendrils Only 1/2 of zygotes implant Phase shift in development A Developmental Cusp Marks end of Germinal Period Marks the beginning of Embryonic Period

Implantation Hormones prepare uterine environment Blastula sends out tendrils Marks end of Germinal Period Marks the beginning of Embryonic Period

Three Embryonic Layers Endoderm Innermost Becomes digestive, respiratory, internal organs (pancreas & liver) Mesoderm Center Layer

Muscles, bones, circ. system Ectoderm Outermost Hair, Skin, CNS Period of the Fetus Starts when all basic structures are complete

Period of refinement for survival in outside world Laws of Developmental Direction Cephalo-caudal Head - tail (foot) Proximo-distal

Near-far Gross - fine basic - refined Teratogens Substances or agents present prenatally that cause physical or psychological abnormalities

Laws of developmental direction mean that timing is important Generally speaking, those having effects during embryonic development will have greater harmful outcomes Benefogens Coined term for agents present during prenatal development having a

beneficial outcome E.G.: AZT (Zidovudine ZDV) HIV infection Folic Acid Neural tube disorders (spina bifida) Teratogen Categories

Maternal Diseases Drugs Environmental Hazards Maternal Characteristics

Maternal Diseases Toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Rubella Genital Herpes Drugs Cigarette Smoking

Alcohol Intake Environmental Hazards Radiation Maternal Characteristics Maternal Age Malnutrition Effect in Last Trimester

Nutritional demands of late fetus is greatest Reproductive Risk versus Caretaking Casualty Reproductive risks - pre & perinatal events Impaired - unimpaired

Caretaking Casualty - postnatal events nonfacilitative - facilitative environment vulnerable - nonvulnerable organism Postnatal Development The Remarkable Newborn Assessing the Neonate Apgar

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale NBAS-R 28 behavioral 18 Reflexes 7 Areas: Habituation, social interaction, motor, state organization, state regulation, autonomic system, reflexes

The Ability to Respond to the Environment Sensory Capability - Receptors vision hearing smelling tasting feeling

Sensation - firing of receptors by stimulus Perception - interpretation of sensory input Nativism versus Empiricism Nativism - innate - nature Empiricism - experience - nurture Behavioral Systems Approach Perception is due to both

How Do We Know the Sensory/ Perceptual Capabilities of the Infant? Common to all methods - Change in Behavior correlated with change in Stimulus Methods

Methods of of Perceptual Perceptual Research Research

Visual Preference (Fantz) Visual Cliff (E. Gibson & Walk) Habituation-Dishabituation Operant Conditioning Procedures Visual Preference Looking Chamber Reflection of stimulus on cornea

The Basic Problem Change in behavior - time gazing Change in stimulus - different visual stimuli Limitations The Coke vs. Pepsi Problem There may be perception even though there is no preference Looking Chamber - Fantz

Visual Cliff Depth Perception Deep vs. Shallow end

Mother entices the child to crawl Limitations Child or kid must be ambulatory Overcome by monitoring heart rate of babies suspended over each end (Campos) Visual Cliff - E. Gibson Habituation-Dishabituation

Babies cant suck & listen (watch) at same time. Establish sucking response Disrupt it with repeated stimulus (e.g., Pa) With repetition of Pa, child habituates

sucking returns A new stimulus (e.g., Ba) is introduced If child perceives difference between Ba & Pa, sucking stops - Dishabituation Operant Procedures Behaviors which are reinforced become more frequent

Researcher reinforces response to one stimulus and not to another If child perceives difference between stimuli than will respond more to reinforced stimulus Operant Conditioning Procedures Perception Responses: e.g., head turning, sucking, kicking

Reinforcers: e.g., mothers voice, milk, visual stimuli, heartbeat. Memory & Cognition Kicking mobile in presence of an X produces conjugate reinforcement In later testing immediate kicking when X is present shows recall of contingency (remembering)

Operant Conditioning Procedures Early Perception Dr. Seuss passages read by mothers in last trimester. Infants suck to produce mother-read passages. Early Socialization

Infant social referencing. Perceptual Abilities as Universal Behaviors Some abilities are hard wired Examples Detect light from dark Detect horizontal from vertical Detect sound (phoneme) boundaries

Reflexes as Universal Behaviors Hard - Wired Present at birth Do not need much experience Unlearned thus Unconditioned Reflex is not a behavior but stimulusbehavior relationship

Examples of Reflexes Consummatory Defensive Social Consummatory Reflexes (Watson (1920) eliciting rooting reflex) Search

Defensive Reflexes Watson (1920) eliciting Babinski reflex) How Do Reflexes Change? 1. Reflexes May Stay the Same 2. Reflexes May Disappear 3. Reflexes May Be Elicited by New Stimuli - Respondent Conditioning

4. Reflexes May be Elaborated into New Behaviors - Operant Conditioning End of Chapter 4

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