Chapter 4 PowerPoint - Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
Power Point Slides for: Financial Institutions, Markets, and Money, 9th Edition Authors: Kidwell, Blackwell, Whidbee & Peterson Prepared by: Babu G. Baradwaj, Towson University And Lanny R. Martindale, Texas A&M University Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1 CHAPTER 4 THE LEVEL OF INTEREST RATES What are Interest Rates? Rental price for money. Penalty to borrowers for consuming before earning.
Reward to savers for postponing consumption. Expressed in terms of annual rates. As with any price, interest rates serve to allocate resources. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 The Real Rate of Interest
Producers seek financing for real assets. Expected ROI is upper limit on interest rate producers can pay for financing. Savers require compensation for deferring consumption. Time value of consumption is lower limit on interest rate at which savers will provide financing. Real rate occurs at equilibrium between desired real investment and desired saving. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4 Loanable Funds Theory Supply of loanable funds All sources of funds available to invest in financial claims Demand for loanable funds All uses of funds raised from issuing financial claims Equilibrium interest rate
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5 Supply of loanable funds All sources of funds available to invest in financial claims: Consumer savings Business savings
Government budget surpluses Central Bank Action Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 6 Demand for Loanable Funds All uses of funds raised from issuing financial claims: Consumer credit purchases
Business investment Government budget deficits Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 7 Equilibrium Interest Rate If competitive forces operate in financial sector, laws of supply and demand will
bring rates into equilibrium. Equilibrium is temporary or dynamic: Any force that shifts supply or demand will tend to change interest rates. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 8 Price Expectations and Interest Rates Unanticipated inflation benefits borrowers at
expense of lenders. Lenders charge added interest to offset anticipated decreases in purchasing power. Expected inflation is embodied in nominal interest rates: The Fisher Effect. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 9 Expectations ex ante v. Experience ex post
Realized rates of return reflect impact of inflation on past investments. As inflation increases, expected inflation premiums, Pe, may lag actual rates of inflation, Pa, yielding low or even negative actual returns. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12 Interest Rate Movements and Inflation Historically, interest rates tend to change
with changes in the rate of inflation, substantiating the Fisher equation. Short-term rates are more responsive to changes in inflation than long-term rates. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13
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