Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 The Hellenistic World, 336146 B.C. Tetrapylon of Aphrodisias. Tetrapylon of Aphrodisias. This monumental gate celebrates the beautiful and rich city of Aphrodisias

in modern Turkey. John Buckler Alexanders Conquests This map shows the course of Alexanders invasion of the Persian Empire and the speed of his progress. More important than the great success of his military campaigns was his founding of Hellenistic cities in the East.

Tazza Farnese This exquisite detail of a cameo bowl from Hellenistic Egypt dates from about 125 B.C. The figure on the left represents the Nile pouring out the horn of plenty. The other figures represent the deities who gave Egypt its great riches. G. Dagli-Orti/ The Art Archive The Main Street of Pergamum No matter where in old Greece they had come from, all Greeks would immediately feel

at home walking along this main street in Pergamum. They would all see familiar sights. To the left is the top of the theater where they could watch the plays of the great dramatists, climb farther to the temple, and admire the fortifications on the right. Faith Cimok, Turkey Theater of Stratos Excavation of this theater in Stratos, a major city in northwestern Greece, began only in 1994. Not a city in the mainstream of Greek affairs, Stratos nevertheless shared the love

and appreciation of the arts that stamped all of Greek culture. Even in its partially excavated state, the theater boasts the remains of a stone building in the foreground, the orchestra, and behind it the seats. Beyond its many architectural refinements, the theater is of interest because most Greek plays were staged in small theaters such as this. John Buckler Marital Advice This small terra-cotta sculpture is generally seen as a mother advising her daughter, a new bride. Such intimate scenes of ordinary people were popular in the Hellenistic

world, in contrast to the idealized statues of gods and goddesses of the classical period. British Museum/Michael Holford Cultural Blending Ptolemy V, a Macedonian by birth and the Hellenistic king of Egypt, dedicated this stone to the Egyptian sacred bull of

the Egyptian god Ptah. Nothing here is Greek or Macedonian, a sign that the conquered had, in some religious and ceremonial ways, won over their conquerors. Egyptian Museum, Cairo Harbor and Warehouse

at Delos During the Hellenistic period Delos became a thriving trading center. Shown here is the row of warehouses at waters edge. From Delos cargoes were shipped to virtually every part of the Mediterranean. Rolf Richardson/age fotostock/superstock

Hellenistic Magic This magical text, written in Greek and Egyptian, displays a snake surrounding the magical incantation. The text is intentionally obscure. British Library

Hellenistic Mystery Cult The scene depicts part of the ritual of initiation into the cult of Dionysus. The young woman here has just completed the ritual. She now dances in joy as the official with the sacred staff looks on. Scala/Art Resource, NY Tyche

This statue depicts Tyche as the bringer of bounty to people. Some Hellenistic Greeks worshiped Tyche in the hope that she would be kind to them. Philosophers tried to free people from her whimsies. Others tried to placate her. Faith Cimok, Turkey

Archimedes mill. Archimedes mill. A slave turns a large cylinder fitted with blades to form a screw that draws water from a well. Courtesy, Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei. Photograph by Penelope M. Allison Catapult This model shows a catapult as its crew would have seen it in action. The arrow was

loaded on the long horizontal beam, its point fitting into the housing. There the torsion spring under great pressure released the arrow at the target, which could be some 400 yards away. Courtesy, Noel Kavan This gilded case for a bow and arrows indicates that Alexanders success came at the price of blood. This gilded case for a bow and arrows indicates that Alexanders success came at the

price of blood. These vigorous scenes portray more military conflict than philosophical compassion. Archaeological Museum Salonica/Dagli-Orti/The Art Archive

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