Chapter 5-Solutions and Colligative Properties

Chapter 5-Solutions and Colligative Properties

Announcements To join clicker to class today: Turn on the Clicker (the red LED comes on). Push Join button followed by 20 followed by the Send button (switches to flashing green LED if successful). Exam on Chapters 5 & 6 one week from today. Students with work-study money are encouraged to apply to work in the Chemistry Stockroom (See Ms. Hauer, the stockroom manager).

Review Valence Electrons Review of Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding octet rule electronegativity electron affinity bond polarity Simple Lewis Structures Continuum of bond types (covalent, polar covalent, ionic, semi-metallic, metallic) Systematic Lewis Structures 1. Octet rule: all main group (s and p block) elements except B (6) and H (2) will share electrons to get 8 valence electrons. 2. Count the total number of valence electrons on all atoms. 3. Next draw single bonds from each of the outer atoms to the central atom. Subtract

two electrons from the total number of electrons for each bond you have made = # electrons you have left to use elsewhere. 4. Put electrons on the outer atoms to give each atom a total of eight (an octet). (H) hydrogen only needs 2 electrons. (B) boron usually only 6 electrons. Keep track of how many electrons you are using. If you run out of electrons before filling the outer atoms' octets, stop. 5. Any electrons that were not used up in step 3 should be put on the central atom. You should now have no unused valence electrons. 6. If any atoms do not have octets, make multiple bonds (double and triple) by sharing electron pairs from atoms that do have octets. 7. Look for resonance structures. If you have made multiple bonds or have odd electron species where all the atoms cannot have octets, there may be more than one way to arrange the multiple bonds or place the odd electron. If so, the molecule is better modelled as an average of all the possible structures. Ozone, O3 Allotrope of oxygen (allotropes are

differently bound forms of the same element) O3 is one of the irritants in smog. O3 in the stratosphere (ozone layer) is good. It protects us from UV radiation by absorbing radiation between 242 nm and 320 nm. O2 only absorbs radiation with 242 nm (higher energy) Quick rules for simple Lewis Structures Works well for some period two atoms (H, C, N, O, F) and the halogens (group 17) most of the time. Atom H

C Number of Bonds 1 4 N 3 O 2 F (same for other halogens) 1

Lewis Cartoon H- Catalytic destruction of O3 by Cl 1) CCl3F + hv > CCl2F + Cl 2) Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2 3) ClO + O -> Cl + O2 Last two RXNs constitute a catalytic cycle Cl used in RXN 2, but produced in equal amounts in RXN 3. Sum of RXNs 2 &3: Cl + O3 + O > Cl + 2O2

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