Chapter 6 Organizational Climate of Schools - Wayne K. Hoy
Chapter 6 Organizational Climate of Schools W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Organizational Climate Definitions: Organizational climate is concerned with large units; it characterizes properties of an entire organization or major subunits. Organizational climate describes a unit of organization rather than evaluates it or indicates emotional reactions to it.
Organizational climate arises from routine organizational practices that are important to the organization and its members. Organizational climate influences members behaviors and attitudes. Put simply, the set of internal characteristics that distinguish one school from another and influence the behavior of members is the organizational climate of the school. Personality is to individual and climate is to organization. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Organizational Climate Frameworks Four School Climate Frameworks:
The Openness of Interpersonal Relations measured by the OCDQ The Health of Interpersonal Relations measured by the OHI Openness and Health Synthesis measured by the OCI A Climate of Citizenship measured by the OCB W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Openness of Organizational Climate School Climate: Open to Closed An Open School Climate is characterized by teacher
relations that are professional, collegial, friendly, and committed to the education of students. The principal is supportive and professional and does not restrict or direct teachers with orders. A Closed School Climate is characterized by teacher relations that are disengaged, distant, suspicious, and not professional. The principal is directive, restrictive, and not supportive. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Organizational Climate Description QuestionnaireOCDQ The openness of the school climate can be measured by the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ). There are slightly different measures for elementary, middle, and high schools. See www.coe.ohio-state.edu/whoy. Sample items from the OCDQ-RE (Elementary School Version) DIRECTIONS: THE FOLLOWING ARE STATEMENTS ABOUT YOUR SCHOOL. PLEASE INDICATE THE EXTENT TO WHICH EACH STATEMENT CHARACTERIZES YOUR SCHOOL BY CIRCLING THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE. R0=RARELY OCCURS SO=SOMETIMES OCCURS O=OFTEN OCCURS VFO=VERY FREQUENTLY OCCURS 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The teachers accomplish their work with vim, vigor, and pleasure...............RO SO Teachers' closest friends are other faculty members at this school....................RO SO Faculty meetings are useless................................................................................ROSO The principal goes out of his/her way to help teachers.......................................RO The principal rules with an iron fist......................................................................RO Teachers leave school immediately after school is over......................................RO SO Teachers invite faculty members to visit them at home......................................RO SO The principal uses constructive criticism..............................................................RO O O O SO SO
O O SO VFO VFO VFO O O VFO VFO O VFO VFO VFO For the complete instrument and details for scoring, see Hoy & Tarter (1997b) or www.coe.ohio-state.edu/whoy W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011
Dimensions of Organizational Climate Dimensions of the OCDQ for Elementary Schools and Sample Items Principals Behavior Supportivereflects a concern for teachers, is open to suggestions, respects teachers professional competence. Praise is genuine and frequent and criticism is constructive. The principal uses constructive criticism. The principal listens to and accepts teachers suggestions. Directivemaintains close and constant control over all teacher and school activities. The principal rules with an iron fist. The principal monitors everything teachers do. RestrictiveHinders rather than facilitates teacher work; burdens with busywork. Routine duties interfere with the job of teaching. Teachers have too many committee requirements. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 OCDQ DIMENSIONS Dimensions of the OCDQ for Elementary Schools and Sample Items Teacher Behavior Collegialsupports open and professional interactions among teachers. Teachers are enthusiastic, accepting, and mutually respectful of professional competence. Teachers respect the professional competence of their colleagues.
Teachers accomplish their work with vim, vigor, and pleasure. Intimatereflects a cohesive and strong network of socials support among the faculty. Teachers know each other well, are close personal friends, and socialize. Teachers socialize with each other. Teachers closest friends are other faculty members at this school. Disengagedrefers to a lack of meaning and focus in professional activities. Teachers are simply putting in time and going through the motions. Faculty meetings are useless. Teachers ramble when they talk at faculty meetings. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Types of Organizational Climate Principal Behavior Open Closed Open Open Climate
Engaged Climate Closed Disengaged Climate Closed Climate Teacher Behavior W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Health of Organizational Climate School Climate: Healthy to Unhealthy A Healthy School Climate is characterized by institutional integrity--teachers are protected from disruptive outside forces. The principal has influence with superiors, gets needed
resources, and has an integrated leadership style that is concerned with both the task at hand and the social well being of teachers. Morale is high and there is a general press for academic achievement by teachers, parents, and students. A Unhealthy School Climate is vulnerable to disruptive outside forces. The principal has little influence with superiors, resources are scarce, and the principal neither sets direction nor is supports teachers. Morale is poor and there is limited attention to academic matters because the teacher have given up. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Organizational Health Inventory OHI The health of the school climate can be measured by the Organizational Health Inventory (OHI). There are slightly different measures for elementary, middle, and high schools. See www.coe.ohio-state.edu/whoy. Sample items from the OHI-S (High School Version) DIRECTIONS: THE FOLLOWING ARE STATEMENTS ABOUT YOUR SCHOOL. PLEASE INDICATE THE EXTENT TO WHICH EACH STATEMENT CHARACTERIZES YOUR SCHOOL BY CIRCLING THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE. R0=RARELY OCCURS SO=SOMETIMES OCCURS O=OFTEN OCCURS VFO=VERY FREQUENTLY OCCURS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Teachers are protected from unreasonable community and parental demands..... The principal gets what he or she asks for from superiors................................... RO The principal is friendly and approachable............................................................. RO The principal asks that faculty members follow standard rules and regulations.... RO Extra materials are available if requested............................................................... RO Teachers do favors for each other............................................................................. RO The students in this school can achieve the goals that have been set for them......... The school is vulnerable to outside pressures......................................................... RO The principal is able to influence the actions of his or her superiors.................... RO RO SO
SO SO SO SO RO SO SO SO O O O O O SO O O O VFO VFO VFO
VFO VFO O VFO VFO For the complete instrument and details for scoring, see Hoy & Tarter (1997b) or www.coe.ohio-state.edu/whoy W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 VFO VFO OHI-Dimensions and Sample Items Institutional Level Institutional Integrity--describes a school that is not vulnerable to narrow, vested interests from the community. The school is able to cope well with outside destructive forces. Sample items: The school is protected from unreasonable community and parental demands. The school is vulnerable to outside pressure.* Managerial Level Principal Influence--refers to the principals ability to affect the action of superiors. The influential principal works successfully with the
superintendent for the benefit of teachers. Sample items: The principal gets what he or she asks for from superiors. The principal is impeded by superiors.* Consideration--behavior by the principal that is friendly, supportive, open, and collegial. Sample items: The principal looks out for the personal welfare of faculty members.. The principal is friendly and approachable. Initiating Structure--behavior by the principal that is task and achievement oriented. The principal makes his expectations clear and maintains standards of performance. Sample items: The principal lets faculty members know what is expected of them. The principal maintains definite standards of performance. Resource Support--refers provisions at the school where adequate classroom supplies and instructional materials are available and extra materials are easily obtained. Sample items: Extra materials are available if requested. Teachers are provided with adequate materials for their classrooms. OHI DIMENSIONS AND SAMPLE ITEMS School Level Morale--refers to a sense of trust, confidence, enthusiasm, and friendliness among teachers. Teachers feel good about each other and, at the same time, feel a sense of accomplishment from
their jobs. Sample items: Teachers in this school like each other. The morale of teachers is high. Academic Emphasis--refers to the schools press of achievement. High but achievable academic goals are set for students; the learning environment is orderly and serious; teachers believe in the ability of their students to achieve; and students work hard and respect academic achievement. Sample items: The school sets high standards for academic performance. Students respect others who get good grades. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 School Health Profiles 800 Healthy Profile 700 600 500 400 300
200 Unhealthy Profile Institutional Principal Consideration Initiating Resource Morale Integrity Influence structure Support Academic Press A Synthesis: The OCI The OCDQ measures openness of school relations whereas the OHI measures the health of those relations. A quick way to get a sketch of both openness and health is to use the short Organizational Climate Index (OCI), which measures aspects of climate at the institutional, principal, teacher, and student level.
W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Dimensions and Samples of the OCI Institutional Level Institutional Vulnerability the extent to which the school is susceptible to a few vocal parents and citizen groups. High vulnerability suggests that both teachers and principals are unprotected and put on the defensive. Sample items: A few vocal parents can change school policy. The school is vulnerable to outside pressures. Principal Level Collegial Leadership The principal treats teachers as professional colleagues, is open, egalitarian, and friendly, but at the same time sets clear teacher expectations and standards of performance. Sample items: The principal treats all faculty members as equals. The principal lets faculty members know what is expected of them. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Dimensions and Samples of the OCI Teacher Level Professional Teacher Behavior is marked by respect for colleague competence,
commitment to students, autonomous judgment, and mutual cooperation and support. Sample items: Teachers respect the professional competence of their colleagues. Teachers in this school exercise professional judgment. Student Level Achievement Press describes a school that sets high but achievable academic standards and goals. Students persist, strive to achieve, and are respected by each other and teachers for their academic success. Parents, teachers, and the principal all press students for high standards and school improvement. Sample items: The school sets high standards for academic achievement. Academic achievement is recognized and acknowledged by the school. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 A Climate of Citizenship A Climate of Citizenship refers to a school in which the teachers generally behave in helpful ways. They typically go beyond routine duties, voluntarily help others, and embrace extra work. Their behavior is characterized by altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, and good
citizenship. Voluntarism is dominate character of teacher behavior. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Aspects of Org. Citizenship and Sample Items of the OCB Altruismhelping new colleagues and freely giving time to others. Sample item: Teachers voluntarily help new teachers. Conscientiousnessusing time efficiently and going beyond minimum expectations. Sample item: Teachers arrive to work and meetings on time. Sportsmanshipspending time on constructive efforts and avoiding complaining. Sample item: Teachers give an excessive amount of busy work (reverse score). Courtesyproviding advance notices and reminders. Sample item: Teachers give colleagues advance notice of changes in schedule or routine. Civic Virtueserving on committees and voluntarily attending functions. Sample item: Teachers voluntarily serve on new committees. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Organizational Culture and Climate Culture versus Climate
Culture is shared norms, values, tacit expressions Climate is perceptions of behavior School climate is a relatively enduring quality of the school environment that is experienced by participants, affects their behavior, and is based on their collective perceptions of behavior in schools W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Improving Organizational Climate Two Change Strategies: The Clinical Strategy The Growth-Centered
Strategy W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 The Clinical Strategy Gaining knowledge of the organization Diagnosis Prognosis Prescription Evaluation W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 The Growth-Centered Strategy: Acceptance of the following set of assumptions: Change is a property of healthy school
organizations Change has direction Change should imply progress Teachers have high potential for the development and implementation of change W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011 Administrative Imperatives Routinely check the organizational climate of your school: Data rule.
Build trust and foster authenticity in behavior: Trust is pivotal in successful teamwork. Use a variety of perspectives and measures of school climate: Multiple perspectives enrich analysis. Build a climate of openness, health, and citizenship: It enhances both the academic achievement and social emotional development of students. Focus on academic emphasis but not at the expense of healthy interpersonal relationships: Both social and task needs of schools should be met. Use both the climate and culture measures as part of a systematic professional development program: Climate and culture are complementary yet different views of schools. Encourage teachers to use data and evidence in their decision making: Opinion and experience are insufficient. Use the data from the school climate instruments to evaluate yourself and your school: Critical analysis and reflection improve performance. Set professional goals based on data assessment: Then monitor progress. Use negative data positively: Seize shortcomings as learning opportunities. Enlist your teachers in the development of school improvement plans: Teachers should be full partners because ultimately only teachers themselves can improve instruction. W. K. Hoy 2003, 2008, 2011
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