Chapter 6: Personality and Values - San Francisco State ...

Chapter 6: Personality and Values - San Francisco State ...

6-1 6-1 Chapter Chapter 66 Personality and Lifestyles Personali Personali ty ty Personality refers to a persons unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his or her environment. Most now agree that both personality and situational factors play a role in determining peoples behavior. Personality is usually involved, along with: A persons choices of leisure activities, political outlook, aesthetic tastes, and Other individual factors to segment customers in terms of Lifestyles. 6-2 6-2 Consumer Consumer Behavior Behavior on on the the Couch:

Couch: Freudian FreudianId Oriented Towards Theory Immediate Theory Gratification Ego Ego Referee Refereein inthe theFight FightBetween BetweenTemptation Temptationand andVirtue Virtue Superego Persons Conscience 6-3 6-3 Motivational Motivational Research Research 6-4 6-4 Applying Freudian ideas led to a perspective

known as Motivational Research, Research which has a heavy emphasis on unconscious motives. A basic assumption is that socially unacceptable needs are channeled into acceptable outlets. This form of research relies on Depth Interviews, Interviews which uses relatively few consumers but probes deeply into each persons purchase motivations. Motivational Research has been attacked for two reasons: Some feel it does not work, Some feel that it works too well. Neo-Freudian Neo-Freudian Theories Theories Karen Karen Horney Horney Alfred Alfred Adler Adler Harry Stack Sullivan Carl Jung 6-5 6-5

Described DescribedPeople Peopleas: as:Moving Moving Toward Others (Compliant), Toward Others (Compliant),Away Away From FromOthers Others(Detached), (Detached),or or Against AgainstOthers Others(Aggressive). (Aggressive). Proposed That Many Actions Are Motivated by Peoples Desire to Overcome Feelings of Inferiority Relative to Others. Focused on How Personality Evolves to Reduce Anxiety in Social Relationships. Analytical Psychology - Believed That People are Shaped by the Cumulative Experiences of Past Generations which create Archetypes. Trait Trait Theory Theory One Approach to Personality is to Focus on the

Quantitative Measurement of Traits, Traits or Identifiable Characteristics that Define a Person Such As: Extroversion Extroversion Innovativeness Innovativeness Materialism Materialism Self-Consciousness Self-Consciousness Need Need for for Cognition Cognition 6-6 6-6 Problems Problems With With Trait Trait Theory Theory in in Consumer Consumer Research Research 6-7 6-7 Many of the scales are not sufficiently valid.

Researchers make changes in the research instrument. Personality tests are often developed only for specific populations. Many trait scales are intended to only measure gross tendencies. Tests may not be administered under the best conditions. Many of the scales are not well planned or thought out. Brand Brand Personality Personality 6-8 6-8 Brand BrandEquity Equity Extent ExtentThat ThataaConsumer ConsumerHolds

HoldsStrong, Strong,Favorable, Favorable, and andUnique UniqueAssociations Associationsabout aboutaaBrand Brandin inMemory. Memory. Brand Brand Personality Personality Assigning AssigningPersonality PersonalityQualities Qualitiesto toInanimate InanimateProducts Products That ThatMakes Makesthe theProduct ProductStand StandOut OutFrom Fromthe theCompetition. Competition. Animism Animism Inanimate InanimateObjects

Objectsare areGiven GivenQualities Qualities That ThatMake MakeThem ThemSomehow SomehowAlive. Alive. Level Level2: 2:Objects Objectsare are Level 1: Object is Believed to Level 1: Object is Believed to Anthropormphized --Given Anthropormphized Given Possessed Possessedby bythe theSoul Soulof ofaaBeing. Being. Human HumanCharacteristics. Characteristics. i.e.

Spokesperson in Advertising i.e. Spokesperson in Advertising i.e. i.e.Charlie Charliethe theTuna Tuna Lifestyle: Lifestyle: Who Who We We Are, Are, What What We We Do Do 6-9 6-9 Lifestyle refers to a pattern of consumption reflecting a persons choices of how he or she spends time and money. It represents how a person allocates income: To different products and services, and To specific alternatives within these categories. A Lifestyle Marketing Perspective recognizes that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of: Things they like to do, How they like to spend their leisure time, and How they choose to spend their disposable income.

Lifestyl Lifestyl es es 6-10 6-10 Lifestyles as Group Identities Lifestyles are statements about who one is in society and who one is not. Each person adds their own individuality to a chosen lifestyle. Products Are the Building Blocks of Lifestyles Consumers often choose products, services, and activities over others because they are associated with a certain lifestyle. Lifestyle Marketing Strategies focus on product usage in desirable social settings. Linking Linking Products Products to to People, Products, and Settings are Combined to Lifestyles Lifestyles Express a Certain Consumption Style. Person Lifestyle Setting Setting

Product Product 6-11 6-11 Linking Linking Products Products to to Lifestyles Lifestyles Lifestyle Marketing Perspective Marketers must look at Patterns of Behavior to understand consumers. Marketers must identify the set of products and services that seems to be linked in consumers minds to a specific lifestyle. Product Complementarity occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products are related to each other. These sets of products, called Consumption Constellations, Constellations are used by consumers to define, communicate, and perform social roles. i.e. The Yuppie was defined by a Rolex watch, BMW cars and Gucci briefcases. 6-12 6-12 Conducting Conducting A

A Psychographic Psychographic Analysis Analysis Forms of a Psychographic Study: Lifestyle LifestyleProfile Profile Product-Specific Product-SpecificProfile Profile Study StudyThat ThatUses UsesPersonality Personality Traits Traitsas asDescriptors Descriptors General GeneralLifestyle Lifestyle Segmentation Segmentation Product-Specific Product-Specific Segmentation Segmentation 6-13 6-13

Definition of Psychographics: Involves the .. use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors... to determine how the market is segmented by the propensity of groups within the market - and their reasons - to make a particular decision about a product, person, ideology, or otherwise hold an attitude or use a medium. AIOs AIOs and and Psychographics Psychographics A Activities ctivities IInterests nterests 6-14 6-14 O Opinions pinions Demographics Demographics -- Describes Describes Who

Who Buys Buys Psychographic Psychographic Profiles Profiles -- Tells Tells Why Why Consumers Consumers Buy Buy 20/80 20/80 Rule Rule Uses Uses of of Psychographic Psychographic Segmentation Segmentation Market Market Social Socialand and Political PoliticalIssues Issues Develop DevelopOverall Overall Strategy Strategy Communicate Communicate

Product Product Attributes Attributes 6-15 6-15 Define Definethe the Target Target Market Market Create CreateaaNew New View View of ofthe theMarket Market Position Positionthe the Product Product VALS VALS 22 6-16 6-16 Abundant

Abundant Resources Resources Actualizers Actualizers Principle Principle Oriented Oriented Status Status Oriented Oriented Action Action Oriented Oriented Fulfilleds Fulfilleds Achievers Achievers Experiencers Experiencers Believers Believers Strivers Strivers Makers Makers Strugglers Strugglers

Minimal Minimal Resources Resources Global Global Marketing Marketing and and Culture Culture Taste and 6-17 6-17 Stylistic Preferences Cultural Sensitivities Areas Areas Affected Affected by by Nationality Nationality Modesty Advertising Major Major Consumer Consumer Trends

Trends Environmentalism Environmentalism and and 6-18 6-18 Green Green Marketing Marketing AA Return Return to to Value Value Time Time Poverty Poverty Disillusionment Disillusionment of of Working Working Women Women Decreased Decreased Emphasis Emphasis on on Nutrition Nutrition and and Exercise Exercise Major Major Consumer Consumer Trends

Trends Cocooning Cocooning Nonconsumption Nonconsumption Individualism Individualism and and Mass Mass Customization Customization AA Laid-Back Laid-Back Lifestyle Lifestyle Life Life in in the the Fast Fast Lane Lane 6-19 6-19

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