Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Which two Muslim cities served as political and administrative centers of Muslim empires? I. II. III. IV. V. Baghdad Istanbul Mecca Mogadishu

Medina a) b) c) d) I and III II and IV I and II III and V

Today: 10/7 and 10/8 Practice Question Reading Quiz Look at Reading Guide Lecture Exit

Objective: Students will be able to describe how Family group traditions and a new religion created a new Post-Classical Empire Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise

and Spread of Islam Introduction Difference between the terms Arab and Islam They do not mean the same thing 1st Global Civilization What do you think this means??? Very unique development of an empire that expanded throughout the known world. Centralization as well as a unifying factor of Religion Spread very fast

4 developments define postclassical centuries 1. Islamic civilization spread politically and culturally into Asia, Europe and Africa 2. Civilizations expanded into new world regions 3. The great world religions gained adherent from peoples once following local belief structures 4. The creation of a world network linking many of the individual civilizations

In this beginning Arab Peninsula Bedouin Societies Nomadic Herders Trade routs Clan/family ties Clan Life A way to survive in a VERY harsh environment Subsistence living Water constant struggle

Kin related. So Families made up the Clan Survival depended on cooperation, support and loyalty. If you were kicked out of your clan you would most likely DIE Culture of violence Tribes Clans were smaller family groups Larger Tribal groups would come together in

times of hardship and war They usually didnt get along Family Clan Family Clan Family Clan Family Clan

Tribe Family Clan Culture of Violence Clans would feud with each other Could last for hundreds of years Revenge is a major part of the culture

Organization Unlike prehistory nomads, there is a great variation of wealth and power Even within the clan Shaykhs Warriors (and their families) Slave families Trade Another major aspect of the culture

Small communities did develop in certain places to help facilitate trade Mecca: Founded by the Umayyad Clan of the Quraysh Tribe Very affluent Kaba: located here and is part of the pre-Islamic religion Medina: Established as an Oasis Very agricultural Controlled by multiple clans that didnt get along Meant that Medina was not very strong

Women What do you think the gender relations were like in the Bedouin communities??? Not like pre-history equality Women were not equal but may have had more rights Depended a lot of the individual clans Religion Before and During Muhammad Before: The clans blended animism and polytheism

Met the needs of their individual clan Allah: Quraysh tribes supreme god Kaba was used as a religious place for multiple gods During Muhammad The hardships of Muhammads early life underscores the importance of Clan ties in the Arabian world

Muhammad Born into a prominent clan of the Quraysh Tribe Educated with the clan to be a merchant During his caravan travels he met Christians and Jews He was aware of the Monotheistic traditions developing c. 610 He started receiving messages from Allah through the angle Gabriel Islam Started very small Muhammad was very respected so it helped to get

his message out So much fighting between tribes there was nothing to bring them together (unite them) They were Arab but it was not a unifying factor Islam provided a religion that was distinctly Arab and equal to other religions Provided a possible end to the fighting Ok so how did this all work Muhammad settled disputes in Medina making

it a stronger community Umayyad didnt like this because it threatened their trade They attack Muhammad and his followers After victory Muhammad was able to travel back to Mecca to the Kaba Proved to be strong both as a man and a religion Something to bring us together Islam gave a common identity to the Arab world Umma community of Faithful

This would rise above old tribal and clan boundaries The Quran and Muhammads teachings would be incorporated into laws ISLAM Tribe Clans Tribe Clans

Tribe Clans Tribe Clans BUT. . . After Muhammads death many of the tribes renounced the faith and tired to return to old ways The split New leaders needed to be found and then they

had to force those who left to return This was a more Arab empire in the beginning Successor Issue After Muhammads death: They had to decide on a Caliph to be the political and religion successor Who do we choose ??? This Split Shia: The successor should be a member of Muhammads family

Sunni: The successor should be the strongest Umayads Umayyad Dynasty Arab conquest that began during the search for a successor continued They wanted booty: that means riches Didnt worry so much about conversion Have to share the booty Dhimmi: people of the book

Damascus becomes the political center Umayyad decline They began to move away from the simple, frugal life that Muhammad taught Were very centered around family ties and nothing else Abbasids began to grow angry and wanted power Used the Mawali (non Arab Muslims) and Shia to help them gain the power Come to dinner Reject those that helped them after they took power

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