Chapter 6

Chapter 6

THE EARTH THROUGH TIME TENTH EDITION H A R O L D L. L E V I N 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1 CHAPTER 6 Life on Earth: What do Fossils Reveal? 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2

FOSSILS Fossils are the remains or traces of ancient life which have been preserved by natural causes in the Earth's crust. Fossils include both the remains of organisms (such as bones or shells), and the traces of organisms (such as tracks, trails, and burrowscalled trace fossils). 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 FOSSIL PRESERVATION Organisms do not all have an equal chance of being preserved.

The organism must live in a suitable environment. Marine and transitional environments are more favorable for fossil preservation. Higher rate of sediment deposition. To become preserved as a fossil, an organism should: Have preservable parts. Bones, shells, teeth, wood are more readily preserved than soft parts. Be buried by sediment to protect the organism from scavengers and decay. Escape physical, chemical, and biological destruction after burial (bioturbation, dissolution, metamorphism, or erosion). 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

4 TYPES OF FOSSIL PRESERVATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chemical Alteration of Hard Parts Imprints of Hard Parts in Sediment Preservation of Unaltered Soft Parts Trace fossils or Ichnofossils Preservation of Unaltered Hard Parts Hard Partsmineralized material such as shells

Soft Partssoft tissue 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 PRESERVATION OF UNALTERED HARD PARTS The shells of invertebrates and singlecelled organisms, vertebrate bones and teeth: a. b. c. d. e. Calcite (echinoderms and forams) Aragonite (clams, snails, modern corals) Phosphate (bones, teeth, conodonts, fish scales)

Silica (diatoms, radiolarians, some sponges) Organic matter (insects, pollen, spores, wood, fur) 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6 CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF HARD PARTS a. Permineralizationfilling of tiny pores b. Replacementmolecule-bymolecule substitution of one mineral for another (silica or

pyrite replacing calcite) c. Recrystallizationaragonite alters to calcite d. Carbonizationsoft tissues preserved as a thin carbon film (ferns in shale) 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. All photos by Harold Levin 7

IMPRINTS OF HARD PARTS IN SEDIMENT Impressions External molds Internal molds Cast

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8 PRESERVATION OF UNALTERED SOFT PARTS Freezing Desiccation Preservation in amber

Preservation in tar Preservation in peat bogs 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9 TRACE FOSSILS OR ICHNOFOSSILS Markings in the sediment made by the activities of organisms Tracks Trails Burrowsin soft sediment Boringsin hard

material Root marks Nests Eggs Coprolites Bite marks 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Art by Harold Levin 10 TRACE FOSSILS OR ICHNOFOSSILS Trace fossils provide information about ancient water depths, paleocurrents, availability of food, and sediment deposition rates.

Tracks can provide information on foot structure, number of legs, leg length, speed, herding behavior, and interactions. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11 TAXONOMY Organisms are grouped based on their similarities into taxonomic groups orgrouping taxa. Broad Narrow grouping Domain

Kingdom Phylum (plural = phyla) Class Order Family Genus (plural = genera) Species (singular and plural) 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12 BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION A system of binomial nomenclature (i.e., two names) is used to name organisms. The first of the two names is the genus and the second name is the species.

Genus and species names are underlined or italicized. Genus is capitalized, but species is not. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13 THE SPECIES A group of organisms that have structural, functional, and developmental similarities, and that are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. The species is the fundamental unit of biological classification. Paleontology relies on physical traits of fossils and the range in the appearance to identify species. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

14 CLASSIFICATION OF THE HUMAN Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species sapiens 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15 DOMAINS 1. Domain Eukarya

2. Domain Bacteria 3. Domain Archaea There are six Kingdoms distributed into three Domains 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16 CELLS All organisms are composed of cells. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus (or nuclei) and organelles.

Organisms with this type of cell are called eukaryotes (Domain Eukarya). Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus or organelles. Organisms with this type of cell are called prokaryotes (Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria). 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17 DOMAIN EUKARYA Organisms with eukaryotic cells

(cells with a nucleus) Kingdom Animalia (animals) Kingdom Plantae (plants) Kingdom Fungi (mushrooms, fungus) Kingdom Protista (single-celled organisms) 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18 DOMAIN BACTERIA Organisms with prokaryotic cells (cells

without a nucleus) Kindgom Eubacteria (bacteria and cyanobacteria or blue-green algae) 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19 DOMAIN ARCHAEA Organisms with prokaryotic cells, but which are very unusual and quite different from bacteria. Archaea tend to live under extreme conditions of heat, salinity, acidity.

Kingdom Archaebacteria 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20 EVOLUTION = CHANGE Organic evolution refers to changes in populations In biology, evolution is the "great unifying theory" for understanding the history of life. Plants and animals living today are different from their ancestors because of evolution. They differ

in appearance, genetic characteristics, body chemistry, and in the way they function. These differences appear to be a response to changes in the environment and competition for food. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21 LAMARCK'S HYPOTHESIS OF EVOLUTION Jean Baptiste Lamarck (17441829) observed lines of descent from older fossils to more recent ones, and to living forms. He correctly concluded that all species are descended from other species.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22 LAMARCK'S HYPOTHESIS OF EVOLUTION Lamarck assumed that new structures in an organism appear because of the needs or " inner want " of the organism. Structures acquired in this way were thought to be somehow inherited by later generations - inheritance of acquired traits. The idea was challenged because there was no way to test for the presence of an "inner want."

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23 LAMARCK'S HYPOTHESIS OF EVOLUTION Lamarck also suggested that unused body parts would not be inherited by succeeding generations. The hypothesis was tested and rejected after an experiment in which the tails were cut from mice for twenty generations. The offspring still had tails. Similarly, circumcision has been practiced for more than 4000 years with no change among newborn males. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

24 DARWIN'S NATURAL SELECTION Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace were the first scientists to assemble a large body of convincing observational evidence in support of evolution. They proposed a mechanism for evolution which Darwin called natural selection. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 25 DARWIN'S NATURAL SELECTION Natural selection is based on the following observations:

1. More offspring are produced than can survive to maturity. 2. Variations exist among the offspring. 3. Offspring must compete with one another for food, habitat, and mates. 4. Offspring with the most favorable characteristics are more likely to survive to reproduce. 5. Beneficial traits are passed on to the next generation. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 26 DARWIN'S NATURAL SELECTION Darwin's theory was unable to explain WHY offspring exhibited variability. This was to come many years later,

when scientists determined that genetics is the cause of these variations. This principle can be stated as: " the survival of the fittest." 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 27 INHERITANCE, GENES, AND DNA Gregor Mendel (18221884) demonstrated the mechanism by which traits are passed to offspring through his experiments with garden peas. His findings were published in an obscure journal and not recognized by the scientific community until 1900. Mendel discovered that heredity in plants is determined by what we now call genes.

Genes are recombined during fertilization. Genes are linked together to form chromosomes. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 28 CHROMOSOMES AND DNA Within the nucleus of each of our cells are chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of long DNA molecules (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Genes are the parts of the DNA molecule that transmit hereditary traits. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 29 CHROMOSOMES AND DNA The DNA molecule consists of two parallel strands, which resemble a twisted ladder. The twisted strands are phosphate and sugar compounds, linked with nitrogenous bases

(adenine, thimine, guanine, and cytosine). 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 30 DNA The structure of the DNA molecule was discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953. DNA carries chemically coded information from generation to generation, providing instructions for growth, development, and functioning. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

31 REPRODUCTION AND CELL DIVISION Reproduction in organisms may be: Sexual Asexual Alternation of sexual and asexual generations All reproductive methods involve cell division. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 32 GENETIC RECOMBINATION New combinations of chromosomes result through sexual reproduction.

One of each pair of chromosomes is inherited from each parent. This sexual genetic recombination leads to variability within the species. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 33 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Binary fissionsingle-celled organisms that divide to form two organisms Buddinga bud forms on the parent that may:

Separate to grow into an isolated individual, or Remain attached to the parent (colonial organisms). Budding occurs in some unicellular and some multicellular organisms. Spores shed by the parent (as in a seedless plant like moss or ferns) that germinate and produce male and female sex cells (leading to alternation of sexual 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

34 DIPLOID AND HAPLOID CELLS In a human cell there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. One of these pairs determines the sex of the individual. Diploid cellscells with paired chromosomes. Haploid cellssex cells (or gametes) with only one half of a pair of chromosomes. Example: egg cells or sperm cells 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 35 CELL DIVISION

MitosisDivision of body cells of sexual organisms. Produces new diploid cells with identical chromosomes to the parent cells. MeiosisDivision of cells to form gametes or sex cells (haploid cells), with half of chromosomal set of the parent cell; occurs in a two-step process, producing four haploid gametes. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

36 RECOMBINATION OF GENES Fertilized egg forms when two gametes (egg and sperm) combine. Fertilized egg has paired chromosomes (diploid cell). Variation occurs because of the sexual recombination of genes. Genes are recombined in each successive generation.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 37 MUTATIONS Mutations are chemical changes to the DNA molecule. Mutations can be caused by: Chemicals (including certain drugs),

Radiation (including cosmic radiation, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays). Mutations may also occur spontaneously without a specific causative agent. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 38 MUTATIONS Mutations may occur in any cell, but mutations in sex cells will be passed on to succeeding generations. Mutations produce much of the variability on which natural selection operates.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 39 CAUSES OF EVOLUTION Evolution may involve change from three different sources: Mutations Gene recombination as a result of sexual reproduction Natural selection 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 40 EVOLUTION IN POPULATIONS

Evolution is a process of biologic change that occurs in populations. PopulationA group of interbreeding organisms that occupy a given area at a given time. Gene poolThe sum of all of the genetic components of the individuals in a population. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41 EVOLUTION IN POPULATIONS There is no exchange of genes between different populations because they are reproductively isolated. Barriers keep their gene pools

separate (distance, geographic barriers, reproductive barriers, etc.) 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42 GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS Isthmus of Panama, is a barrier between oceans and populations of marine organisms. Islands with isolated populations of land animals.

Galapagos Island finches Galapagos Island tortoises Hawaiian Island honeycreepers (birds) Grand Canyon separates different species of animals living on opposite sides of the canyon. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 43 REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS

Ecological isolationPopulations inhabiting the same geographic area, but living in different habitats Temporal isolationPopulations that reproduce at different times (such as plants that flower in different seasons) Mechanical isolationIncompatible reproductive organs due to differences in size, shape, or structure

Gametic isolationFertilization is prevented by incompatible gametes 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 44 SPECIATION Speciation = The process through which new species arise.

When a population is split by a barrier each population becomes isolated. Over many generations, the genetic differences may accumulate to the point that the different populations are no longer able to interbreed. At this point, the different populations would be considered separate species. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 45 SPECIATION Once a new species is established, segments of the population around the fringes of the population may undergo additional speciation.

With successive speciations, diverse organisms arise with diverse living strategies. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 46 ADAPTIVE RADIATION Defined as the branching of a population to produce descendants adapted to particular environments and living strategies. Bill shapes are adaptations to different means of gathering food.

FIGURE 6-17 The honeycreepers of Hawaii are a fine example of adaptive radiation. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 47 MODELING HOW EVOLUTION OCCURS The question is not whether evolution occurs, but rather, exactly how it occurs. What is the mechanism of evolution? Phyletic gradualismgradual progressive change by means of many small steps (old idea).

Punctuated equilibriumsudden changes interrupting long periods of little change (stasis). Most change occurs over a short period of time. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 48 MODELING HOW EVOLUTION OCCURS Phyletic gradualism vs. Punctuated equilibrium FIGURE 6-21 Evolutionary models: (A) punctuated equilibrium, (B) phyletic gradualism.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 49 SPECIATION Punctuated equilibrium model suggests that evolution occurs in isolated areas around the periphery of the population (peripheral isolates). Speciation may occur rapidly in these isolated areas. When the new species expands or migrates from the isolated area into new areas, it looks like a sudden appearance in the fossil record. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

50 PHYLOGENYTHE TREE OF LIFE Phylogeny = the sequence of organisms placed in evolutionary order. Diagrams called phylogenetic trees are used to display ancestordescendant relationships. Branches on the tree are called clades. FIGURE 6-22 The phylogenetic tree of horses. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 51

CLADOGRAMS Diagrams drawn to show ancestordescendant relationships based on characteristics shared by organisms. They show how organisms are related but do not include information about time or geologic ranges. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 52 LINES OF EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION CITED BY DARWIN

Fossils provide direct evidence for changes in life in rocks of different ages. Homologous structuresCertain organs or structures are present in a variety of species, but they are modified to function differently. Modern organisms contain vestigial organs that appear to have little or no use. These structures had a useful function in ancestral species. Animals that are very different, had similar-looking embryos.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 53 OTHER LINES OF EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION 1. 2. 3. GeneticsDNA molecule Biochemistrysimilar in closelyrelated organisms, but very different in more distantly related organisms. Molecular biologysequences of amino acids in proteins

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 54 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION FROM PALEONTOLOGY Many examples of gradual or sequential evolution in the fossil record, including: 1. 2. 3. Horses Cephalopods and other molluscs

Foraminifera and other microfossils 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FIGURE 6-25 Evolutionary change in Permian ammonoid cephalopods. 55 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION FROM BIOLOGY Homologous structures body parts with similar origin, history and structure, but

different FIGURE 6-26 Bones of the right functions. forelimb from several vertebrates reveal similarity of structure. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 56 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION FROM BIOLOGY Vestigial organs suggest a common ancestry. Vestigial organs serve no apparent purpose, but resemble functioning organs in other animals. FIGURE 6-27 The pelvis and femur (upper leg bone) of a whale are vestigial organs.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 57 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION FROM BIOLOGY Similarity of embryos of all vertebrates suggests a common ancestry. FIGURE 6-28 Embryos of different vertebrates. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 58

EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION FROM BIOLOGY Biochemistry - Chemicals (such as proteins, antigen reactions of blood, digestive enzymes, and hormone secretions) are more similar in related organisms. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 59 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION FROM BIOLOGY DNA sequencing If organisms appear to be similar on the basis of form, embryonic development, or

fossil record, we can predict that they would have a greater percentage of DNA sequences in common, compared with less similar organisms. This is proven to be correct in hundreds of analyses. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 60 FOSSILS AND STRATIGRAPHY The Geologic Time Scale is based on the appearance and disappearance of fossil species in the stratigraphic record. Fossils can be used to recognize the approximate age of a unit and its place in the stratigraphic column.

Fossils can also be used to correlate strata from place to place. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 61 GEOLOGIC RANGE Geologic range = The interval between the first and last occurrence of a fossil species in the geologic record. The geologic range is determined by recording the occurrence of the fossils in numerous stratigraphic sequences from hundreds of locations. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

62 USING FOSSILS TO CORRELATE ROCK UNITS FIGURE 6-29 Use of geologic ranges of fossils to identify time-rock units. Geologic range for fossil X, Y, and z 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 63 USE OF COSMOPOLITAN AND

ENDEMIC SPECIES IN CORRELATION Cosmopolitan species have a widespread distribution. Endemic species are restricted to a specific area or environment. Cosmopolitan species are most useful in correlation 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 64 PITFALLS OF CORRELATING WITH FOSSILS Appearances and disappearances of fossils may indicate: Evolution

Extinction Changing environmental conditions that cause organisms to migrate into or out of an area Reworked fossils 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 65 INDEX FOSSILS Index fossils (or guide fossils) are useful in identifying time-rock units and in correlation. Characteristics of an index fossil: 1. Abundant 2. Widely distributed (cosmopolitan) 3. Short geologic time range (rapid evolution)

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 66 BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC ZONES Biozone = A body of rock deposited during the time when a particular fossil organism existed. A biozone is identified only on the basis of the fossils it contains. Biozones are the basic unit for biostratigraphic classification and correlation. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 67 FOSSILS AND PAST

ENVIRONMENTS 1. 2. 3. Ecology = Interrelationship between organisms and their environment. Paleoecology = Ancient ecology; interaction of ancient organisms with their environment. Depends on comparisons of ancient and living organisms (modern analogs). Ecosystem = Organisms and their environmentthe entire system of physical, chemical, and biological factors influencing organisms.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 68 FOSSILS AND PAST ENVIRONMENTS 4. 5. 6. 7. Habitat = Environment in which an organism lives. Niche = Way in which the organism lives; its role or lifestyle. Community = Association of several

species of organisms in a particular habitat (living part of ecosystem). Paleocommunity = An ancient community. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 69 MARINE ECOSYSTEM The ocean may be divided into two realms: Pelagic realm = The water mass lying above the ocean floor. Benthic realm = The bottom of the sea 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

70 MARINE ECOSYSTEM Pelagic realm Neritic zone = The water overlying the continental shelves. Oceanic zone = The water seaward of the continental shelves. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 71

MARINE ECOSYSTEM Benthic realm Supratidal zone = Above high tide line Littoral zone (or intertidal zone) = Between high and low tide lines Sublittoral zone (or subtidal zone) = Low tide line to edge of continental shelf (~200 m deep) Bathyal zone2004000 m deep Abyssal zone40006000 m deep Hadal zone >6000 m deep; deep sea trenches. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 72

MARINE ECOSYSTEM FIGURE 6-35 Classification of marine environments. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 73 MODES OF LIFE OF MARINE ANIMALS PlanktonSmall plants and animals that float, drift, or swim weakly. PhytoplanktonPlants and plant-like plankton, such as diatoms and coccolithophores ZooplanktonAnimals and animal-like plankton, such as

foraminifera and radiolaria 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 74 MODES OF LIFE OF MARINE ANIMALS NektonSwimming animals that live within the water column Benthic organisms or benthos Bottom dwellers, which may be either: Infaunal: Living beneath the sediment surface; they burrow and churn and mix the sediment, a process called bioturbation Epifaunal: Living on top of the sediment surface

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 75 MARINE SEDIMENTS Terrigenous sedimentfrom weathered rocks Biogenous sedimentof biological origin Calcareous oozes: foraminifera, pteropods, and coccolithophores Siliceous oozes: radiolarians and diatoms Phosphatic material: fish bones, teeth

and scales Hydrogenous sediment: precipitated from sea water manganese nodules 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 76 CARBONATE COMPENSATION DEPTH A depth in the oceans (about 4000-5000 m), which affects where calcareous oozes can accumulate. Above the CCD (shallower than 4000-5000 m), the water is warmer, and CaCO3 is precipitated. Calcareous sediments (chalk or limestone) are

deposited. FIGURE 6-44 Carbonate compensation depth (CCD). 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 77 CARBONATE COMPENSATION DEPTH Below the CCD (below about 40005000 m), water is colder, and CaCO3 dissolves. Clay or siliceous sediments are deposited. FIGURE 6-44 Carbonate compensation depth (CCD). 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 78

USE OF FOSSILS IN RECONSTRUCTING ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY Environmental limitations control the distribution of modern plants and animals. Note locations of fossil species of the same age on a map Interpret paleoenvironment for each region using rock types, sedimentary structures, and fossils. Plot the environments to produce a paleogeographic map for that time interval.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 79 LAND BRIDGES, ISOLATION AND MIGRATION Migration and dispersal patterns of land animals can indicate the existence of: Former land bridge (Bering Strait)

Mountain FIGURE 6-46 Intercontinental migrations of camel family members. barriers Former ocean barriers 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. between 80 SPECIES DIVERSITY AND GEOGRAPHY Species diversity is related to geographic location, particularly latitude.

High latitudes have low species diversity Low latitudes have high species diversity. As a general rule, species diversity increases toward the equator. FIGURE 6-47 Species diversity ranges from low at polar latitudes to high at equatorial latitudes. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 81 USE OF FOSSILS IN THE

INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Fossils can be used to interpret paleoclimates (ancient climates): 1. Fossil spore and pollen grains can tell about the types of plants that lived, which is an indication of the paleoclimate. 2. Plant fossils showing aerial roots, lack of yearly rings, and large wood cell structure indicate tropical climates 3. Presence of corals indicates tropical climates 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 82 USE OF FOSSILS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 4. 5. 6. 7. Marine molluscs with spines and thick shells inhabit warm seas Planktonic foraminifera vary in size and coiling direction with temperature Shells in warmer waters have higher Mg contents Oxygen isotope ratios in shells.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 83 OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LIFE 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 84 OLDEST EVIDENCE OF LIFE Remains of prokaryotic cells (blue-green algae or cyanobacteria) more than 3.5 billion years old.

Found in algal mats and stromatolites. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 85 EARLIEST METAZOAN ORGANISMS Metazoans = multicellular organisms Trace fossils of metazoans about 1 billion years ago First body fossils of soft-bodied metazoans (worms, jellyfish, and arthropods) about 0.7 billion years ago Invertebrates with hard parts appeared during Late Proterozoic or

Early Paleozoic. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 86 GEOLOGIC RANGES AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCES OF FOSSIL ORGANISMS FIGURE 6-54 Geologic ranges and relative abundances of frequently fossilized categories of invertebrate animals. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 87 EARLY PALEOZOICCAMBRIAN PERIOD

Most animals were deposit and suspension feeders Trilobites Brachiopods without hinged shells (inarticulates) Small cap-shaped molluscs Soft-bodied worms Chitin-shelled arthropods Reef-building archaeocyathids

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 88 LATER DURING PALEOZOIC Trilobites Articulate (hinged) brachiopods

Nautiloids Crinoids Rugose (horn) corals Tabulate corals 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Branching twig-like bryozoans (moss animals) Vertebrates

Fishes Amphibians Reptiles 89 MESOZOIC ERA Modern scleractinian corals Bivalves

Sea urchins Ammonoids 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Vertebrates Dinosaurs Primitive mammals Birds 90

CENOZOIC ERA Molluscs of many types (but no ammonoids) Planktonic foraminifera Sea urchins Encrusting bryozoans Barnacles Vertebrates Age of mammals Appearance of humans

Many other vertebrate groups 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 91 EXTINCTIONS Mass extinctions occurred at the ends of the following periods: Ordovician Devonianroughly 70% of marine

invertebrates extinct Permianthe greatest extinction. More than 90% of marine species disappeared or nearly went extinct Triassic Cretaceousaffected dinosaurs, other land animals, and marine organisms; about 25% of all known animal families extinct 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 92 EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF PLANTS FIGURE 6-53 Geologic ranges, relative abundances, and evolutionary relationships of vascular land plants.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 93 EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF PLANTS 1. 2. 3. Earliest photosynthetic organisms were single-celled organisms during Precambrian. Green algae or chlorophytes may be the ancestors of vascular land

plants. Plants invaded the land during Ordovician, reproducing with spores. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 94 EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF PLANTS 4. 5. 6. First plants with seeds appeared

during Devonian. Gymnosperms (such as conifers). Had pollen. Carboniferous coal swamps dominated by seedless, sporebearing scale trees. Flowering plants appeared during Cretaceous. Angiosperms. Dominant plants today. 2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 95 IMAGE CREDITS

FIGURE 6-17 The honeycreepers of Hawaii are a fine example of adaptive radiation. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-21 Evolutionary models: (A) punctuated equilibrium, (B) phyletic gradualism. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-22 The phylogenetic tree of horses. Source: Based on Macfaddan, B.J. 1992. Fossil Horses:

Systematics, Paleobiology, and Evolution of the Family Equidae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FIGURE 6-25 Evolutionary change in Permian ammonoid cephalopods. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-26 Bones of the right forelimb from several vertebrates reveal similarity of structure. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-27 The pelvis and femur (upper leg bone) of a whale are vestigial organs. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-28 Embryos of different vertebrates. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-29 Use of geologic ranges of fossils to identify time-rock units. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-35 Classification of marine environments. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-44 Carbonate compensation depth (CCD). Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-46 Intercontinental migrations of camel family members. Source: After Ross, C., 1967, Development of fusulinid (Foraminiferida) faunal realms. J Paleo 41: 1341-1354. FIGURE 6-47 Species diversity ranges from low at polar latitudes to high at equatorial latitudes. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-54 Geologic ranges and relative abundances of frequently fossilized categories of invertebrate animals. Source: Harold Levin. FIGURE 6-53 Geologic ranges, relative abundances, and evolutionary relationships of vascular land plants. Source: Harold Levin.

2013 JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 96

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