CHAPTER 6: THERMAL ENERGY Section 1TEMPERATURE AND HEAT What is temperature? The temperature of an object is related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules.
These particles move quickly when hot These particles move slowly when cold KE = TEMPERATURE The SI unit for temperature is the Kelvin (K) REMEMBER
Kinetic energy is energy in the form of motion. KE depends on the mass and the velocity of an object. MASShow much matter is in an object VELOCITYspeed and direction of an object MATTER
All matter is made of tiny particlesatoms and molecules. Atoms make up molecules and are held together by chemical bonds. In all materials---solids, liquids, or gases, these particles are in constant motion.
THERMAL ENERGY The sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all molecules in an object is the thermal energy of the object. SPEED of the molecules = KE DISTANCE (separation) = PE
The transfer of THERMAL ENERGY Heat always flows from warmer to cooler objects. Examples A cup of hot chocolate/your cold hands Warm air/cold stick of butter
A COLD STICK OF BUTTER Because the air in the room is a higher temperature than the butter, molecules in the air have more KE than the butter molecules. Energy is transferred from faster-moving molecules in the air to slower-moving butter
molecules. The transfer of THERMAL ENERGY (continued) The butter molecules then begin to move faster and the temperature of the butter increases.
temperature = thermal energy (KE) (KE + PE) HEAT HEAT is THERMAL ENERGY that flows from something at a higher temperature to
something at a lower temperature. ExampleCHAIR Thermal energy from a persons body flowed to the chair and increased the temperature of the chair. HEAT
Heat is a form of energy, so it is measured in joulesthe same unit that energy is measured in . Heat always flows from warmer to cooler materials. SPECIFIC HEAT
The amount of heat that is needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of some material by 1C or 1 K is called the specific heat of the material. Specific heat is measured in joules per kilogram Kelvin or J/kgK.
SPECIFIC HEAT WATER VS. SAND WATER = SPECIFIC HEAT SAND = SPECIFIC HEAT Compared to 1 kg of sand, the amount of heat that is needed to raise the temperature
of 1 kg of water by 1 C is about 6 times greater. Sothe ocean water at the beach would have to absorb 6 times as much heat as the sand to be at the same temperature. WATER AS A COOLANT
Because water can absorb heat without a large change in temperature, it is useful as a coolant. A coolant is a substance that is used to absorb heat. CHAPTER 6: THERMAL
ENERGY Section 2Transferring Thermal Energy CONDUCTION Thermal energy travels as heat from a material at a higher temperature to a
material at a lower temperature. The transfer of thermal energy from matter by the direct contact of particles is called CONDUCTION. CONDUCTION
CONDUCTION (continued) Examplesmaking a snowball; drinking a cup of hot chocolate (DIRECT CONTACT) ***CONDUCTION occurs because all matter is made up of atoms and molecules that are in constant motion.
CONDUCTION (continued) Heat can be transferred by conduction from one material to another (SOUP TO SPOON) or through one material (FROM ONE END OF THE SPOON TO THE OTHER END).
CONDUCTION (continued) Although, CONDUCTION can occur in solids, liquids, and gases---solids usually conduct heat much more effectively CONDUCTION (continued) Why do you think most cooking pots are
made of metal, but the handles usually are not? Silver, copper, and aluminum are among the best heat conductors. Wood, plastic, glass, and fiberglass are poor conductors of heat.
CONVECTION One way liquids and gases differ from solids is that they can flow. Any material that can flow allows fluids to transfer heat in another wayCONVECTION. CONVECTION (continued)
CONVECTION is the transfer of energy in a fluid by the movement of the heated particles. ExampleEarths atmosphere is made of various gases and is a fluid. The atmosphere is warmer at the equator than at the poles.
CONVECTION (continued) Also, the atmosphere is warmer at Earths surface than higher altitudes. These temperature differences create convection currents that carry heat to cooler regions.
RADIATION Earth gets heat from the Sun, but how does that heat travel through space? ***Almost no matter exists in the space between Earth and the Sun, so heat cannot be transferred by CONDUCTION OR CONVECTION. Instead, the Suns heat
reaches the Earth by RADIATION. RADIATION is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. Energy that is transferred by radiation is often called RADIANT ENERGY.
TRANSFERRING THERMAL ENERGY RADIATION VS. COLORS OF MATERIALS Light-colored clothing---reflects more radiant energy Dark-colored clothing---absorbs more radiant
energy INSULATORS A material that does not allow heat to flow through it easily is called an INSULATOR. Materials such as wood, plastic, and fiberglass are good insulators and therefore,
are poor conductors of heat. INSULATORS (continued) Gases, such as air, are usually better insulators than solids or liquids. A material that is a good conductor of heat, such as a metal, is a poor insulator.
Air = good insulator, poor conductor BUILDING INSULATION Building insulation is usually made of fluffy material, such as fiberglass, that contains pockets of trapped air. Reduces flow of heat between building and the
air outside Helps furnaces and air conditioners work more effectively, saving energy INSULATING MATERIALS
INSULATING MATERIALS CHAPTER 6: THERMAL ENERGY Section 3Using Heat All heating systems require some source of
energy. What is the simplest and oldest heating system? Wood or coal burned in a stove Advantagecheap Disadvantageheat transfer to others
rooms is slow FORCED-AIR SYSTEM Most common--PHS Fuel is burned in a furnace and heats air; fan blows warm air
through ducts in each room CONVECTION CURRENT RADIATOR Closed metal container that contains hot water or steam.
Fuel is burned in a central furnace and heats a tank of water; pipes carry the hot water to radiators that are located in each room. ELECTRIC BASEBOARD No central furnace Cost more than electric
heat pump Walls/floors not able to include pipes/ducts SOLAR HEATING The energy from the Sun is called solar energy.
Advantagefree, endless supply Disadvantagedepends on location/weather PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING No mechanical devices House/building faces
the South (lots of windows on the South sunny side) Cheap ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING Uses devices called
solar collectors; heat air or water and then circulate it through the house Expensive ACTIVESOLAR PANELS
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