Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function

Do Now Turn in test corrections to the tray Get out a piece of paper and title it Quiz 1 Make sure to put your name on it!!

You need your textbook today Have notebooks ready for a notebook check

Quiz on Test 1 1 True or False: A theory is a scientific explanation for a set of observations that you must test to support or reject it.

2 Starches, cellulose, and sucrose are all examples of: A. Monosaccharides B. Polypeptides C. Polysaccharides D. Monopeptides

3 Nucleic Acids consist of what elements? A. B. C. D. E.

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus A and B A, B and C 4

Which macromolecule can serve as the raw material to help produce vitamins, hormones, and cholesterol? A. B. C. D. Lipids Proteins

Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids 5 Which is not a type of protein? A. B. C.

D. E. Contractile Hormone Enzymatic Steroid Transport 6

Insulin is a hormone, which means it is a A. Carbohydrate B. Lipid C. Protein D. Nucleic Acid 7

What is the correct term for Thymine and Guanine? A. B. C. D. E.

Complementary bases Nitrogenous bases Base pair A and C All of the above 8 What is the correct term for Adenine

and Uracil? A. Complementary bases B. Nitrogenous bases C. Base pair D. A and C E. All of the above 9

What transfers the genetic code needed for the creation of PROTEINS? A. DNA B. CNA C. RNA D. BNA 10

What is the reaction called that brings monomers together? A. B. C. D. E. Hydrolysis Dehydration Synthesis

Condensation Reaction A and B B and C 11 How do enzymes control chemical reactions in the body? A. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions.

B. Enzymes slow down chemical reactions. C. Enzymes increase the activation energy of a reaction. D. Enzymes inhibit the catalysts of a reaction. 12

Amino acid is to protein as A. fat is to lipid. B. DNA is to RNA. C. sugar is to fat. D. simple sugar is to starch. 13 Which of the following is an example

of a complex carbohydrate? A. Monosaccharides B. Starches C. Lipids D. Glucose 14 A scientist planned an investigation

related to cell membranes. Which background information would be most important to have while planning this investigation? A. The structure of lipid molecules B. How carbohydrates are broken down C. Key differences between RNA and DNA structure D. Differences between monosaccharides and polysaccharides

15 Which of these is a function of lipids in the body? A. They provide quick bursts of energy. B. They are good for long term energy storage.

C. They build muscle and bone tissues. D. They carry the code for all of an organism's traits. BONUS Organic chemistry is the study of _______________________ (element) compounds.

Student of the Week Textbook pages 58-59 Numbers 2 and 4 Chapter 7: Cell Structure and

Function What are cells??? Cells are the basic units of life. Cell Theory

All living things are made up of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing

cells Organelles Eukaryotic cells have specialized substructures, called organelles, carry out the essential functions of life. little organs

Chart, flashcards, or notes your choice! Eukaryotic Cells Animals and Plants Organelles

The cytoplasm is the semi-fluid material that contains the organelles Organelles The cell membrane is the thin flexible barrier surrounding a cell

Lipid bilayer Regulates what enters and leaves the cell Selectively permeable membrane Protects and supports the cell Organelles The nucleus contains the chromosomes which are composed of

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical compound that stores and transmits genetic information) and functions as the genetic control center of the cell Organelles A chromosome is a structure in the nucleus of a cell consisting

essentially of one long thread of DNA that is tightly coiled. Organelles The cytoskeleton is a network of fibrous proteins that helps the cell with maintaining shape, support, and movement.

Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex, extensive network that transports materials throughout the inside of a cell. Rough ER has ribosomes

attached to the surface. Smooth ER has no ribosomes Organelles Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis; some are located on the

ER, others are found in the cytoplasm. Organelles The Golgi complex/ apparatus modifies, collects, packages, and distributes proteins and other materials to be used within or outside

the cell. Organelles Lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the cell.

Organelles Vacuoles store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. Organelles Vesicles are smaller structures that

store and move materials between cell organelles, as well as to and from the cell surface. Organelles Mitochondria supply the energy for the cell Converts chemical energy stored in food

into usable energy for the cell POGIL Activity Directions Group deliverables: on poster paper Create a chart that matches the part of a

factory to an organelle (this is an analogy!) Use the handout BEFORE you draw on your poster Labeled and colored cell drawing from handout Flowchart (question 9) See Figure 7.11 on Pages 200-201 of your

textbook Individual deliverables: on handout Questions 1-18 Proteins Cellular processes are carried out by

molecules. Proteins carry out most of the work of cells to perform the essential functions of life. One of the major functions of the cell is the production of proteins. The genetic information in DNA provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. In eukaryotic cells the nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, and the Golgi apparatus interact to produce, modify and transport proteins.

Plant Cells Organelles Chloroplasts Organelles

Cell wall Organelles Central Vacuole

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