Chapter 7

Chapter 7

CH 15: THE IMMUNE SYSTEM SLOs List 6 types of leukocytes and explain their functions in the IS Compare and contrast innate (nonspecific) and acquired (specific) immunity Compare and contrast humoral immunity

and cell-mediated immunity Compare and contrast 1 and 2 responses Describe self-tolerance and the consequence of its breakdown 3 MAJOR FUNCTIONS 1. Protection from disease causing

invaders (such as ?) 2. Removal of dead / damaged tissues & cells 3. Recognition &

removal of abnormal cells The Concept of Immunity Immunity: Ability to ______________________. Susceptibility: Lack of ________________to a disease. specific

ACTIVATION OF INNATE IMMUNITY 1st line of Defense: Physical & chemical barriers keep pathogens out. E.g.: ___________________________ Example of 2nd line of Defense: Host cells have Toll-like receptors (TLRs) they attach to Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) Binding to TLRs induces release of cytokines regulate intensity and duration of immune responses

TLRS =? PAMPs recognition

IMMUNE CELLS 6 types of blood and tissue cells involved in IS: 1) 2) 3) 4) Which ones are APCs?

5) Which ones are phagocytes? 6) Antigen Presenting Cells 3 types of APCs:

__________ _________ _________ Also stationary Ms: In lung: In liver: In bone: In brain:

etc. PHAGOCYTOSIS Patrolling and stationary WBCs attack and destroy pathogens/foreign molecules nonspecifically Fig 15-1

ADAPTIVE (SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Antigen (pathogen) specific Overlaps with innate immunity 1o cell type involved? __________________ two subgroups: 1) ___________ 2) ___________ Is systemic (= whole body involved)

Has ___________ Uses cytokines (e.g. interleukins & interferons) for communication 2 BRANCHES OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE SYSTEM: 1. Humoral or ___________ mediated 2. Cellular or ______

mediated HUMORAL IMMUNITY Virgin (nave) B Lymphocyte Compare to Fig 15-7 Memory cells Effector cells

ANTIBODIES = IMMUNOGLOBULINS Fig 15-8 Heterogenous group of molecules: 5 subclasses Fig 15-9 5 SUBCLASSES OF IGs: 1. Ig G: main ab in serum; + main ab during 2o response

2. Ig A: main ab is external secretions 3. Ig E: main ab in allergic reactions 4. Ig M: ab on virgin B-cells; + main ab during 1o response 5. Ig D: ab on virgin B-cells Mostly Ig Ms 2 immune response: stronger &

more rapid due to?? <2h Ig Gs Fig 15-20 Importance of Immunizations!!

ANTIBODY functions by working against foreign body HUMORAL VS. B lymphocytes CELLULAR IMMUNITY T lymphocytes

review 1. 2. ________ ________ 1. cytotoxic (killer) 2. helper 3. memory

T-Cell Development TCR cannot bind free ag! Ag must be presented by APC in connection with MHC molecule TCRs can only bind to MHC-ag complex Tc activated by Th activated by IMPORTANCE OF MHC MOLECULES

High # of MHC alleles in population (Transplant rejection in case of incompatible MHC) MHC class I: found on surface of all nucleated cells used to present peptides from intracellular invaders or cancer cells T-cytotoxic cell recognizes MHC I MHC class II: found on surface of APCs T-helper cell recognizes MHC II

TC Action: one of 2 Mechanisms 1) Perforin molecules create protein channels in target cell membrane Youtube Granzymes enter and trigger apoptosis in target cell VIRAL INFECTIONS REQUIRE TC-CELLS

1. Initial response similar to bacterial infection, then 2. Intracellular defense mechanisms needed once virus enters host cell. Tc reacts to viral ag presented by MHC __ complex 3. Activated M release interferons. These induce ________________________

ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE IMMUNITY Active: Exposure to ___________ Passive: Transfer of antibodies or immune cells into non-immune host ALLERGY Inflammatory immune responses to non-pathogenic antigens Symptoms range from mild tissue damage to fatal 1. Immediate Hypersensitivity: e.g.: ___________

_______________ ab mediated (Ig___) 2. Delayed Hypersensitivity: e.g.: _______________ due to T-cell abnormality What is an allergen? Strong genetic predisposition Sensitization phase = 1o immune response.

Reexposure: 2o immune response Anaphylaxis Hives, bronchoconstriction and widespread vasodilation ? Fig. 15.23 Immediate Type HS Poison Oak

Delayed Type HS Tc cells (attracted by lymphokines) release lytic enzymes and perforins destroy allergen and skin cells. IMMUNE RESPONSE PATHWAYS: 4) ORGAN & TISSUE TRANSPLANTS MHC (= HLA) are the 1 tissue antigens Establishment of self tolerance during T cell

development ABO (and Rh) blood typing (AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, OO) Blood transfusion problems due to antibodies in plasma Transfusion reaction with hemolysis and possible kidney damage RECOGNITION OF SELF Important function of IS: Self-tolerance through clonal ______________ Failure of self tolerance: _______________

the end

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