Chapters 7 and 8 Bonding Section 7.1 - Ions Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest occupied energy level. Valence electrons are the only electrons involved in chemical bonding. Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.
Electron Dot Structures Electron dot structures are diagrams that show the symbol of the element surrounded by the valence electrons as dots. Practice Problems Write the electron dot structure for the following elements: P Ar
Mg He Octet Rule The octet rule states that atoms tend to achieve a stable configuration when they have 8 valence electrons. Metals tend to lose electrons to achieve noble-gas configuration. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to achieve noble-gas configuration.
Cations A cation ion is a positive ion that has lost electrons. When writing the electron configuration for a cation, write the electron configuration for the atom and then subtract the electrons from the highest energy level. When you name a cation, the name of the element does not change. Ex: Ca+2 = calcium ion Anions
Anions are negatively charged ions that have gained electrons. When writing the electron configuration for anions, write the electron configuration for the atom and then add the correct number of electrons. When naming an anion, you change the ending of the element to ide. Ex: Cl- = chloride ion Section 7.1 Assessment 1. How can you determine the number of valence electrons in an atom
of a representative element? 2. Atoms of which elements tend to gain electrons? Atoms of which elements tend to lose electrons? 3. How do cations form? 4. How do anions form? 5. How many valence electrons are in each atom? a. Potassium b. Carbon c. Magnesium
d. Oxygen 6. Draw the electron dot structure for each element in question 5. Section 7.1 Assessment 7. How many electrons will each element gain or lose in forming an ion? a. calcium b. fluorine c. aluminum d. oxygen
8. Write the name and symbol of the ion formed when a. a potassium atom loses one electron. b. a zinc atom loses two electrons. c. a fluorine atom gains one electron. Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds.
Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. The electrostatic forces that hold ions together are called ionic bonds. Formulas A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance. A formula unit is the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
Balancing Charges When you balance charges to write the formula for an ionic compound, you must make the + charge and charge equal by adding subscripts. The subscripts must be in the lowest ratio to be correct. Sample Problems Write the formula for the compound formed between the following elements.
Potassium and oxygen K2O Magnesium and nitrogen Mg3N2 Practice Problems Write the formula for the compound when the following elements
combine. Potassium and iodine Aluminum and oxygen KI Calcium and chlorine Al2O3
Barium and sulfur CaCl2 BaS Properties of Ionic Compounds Properties of ionic compounds include the following: Crystalline solids
High melting points Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous Made of metals and nonmetals Made of cations and anions Made of ionic bonds Crystals A crystal is a substance with a 3-D repeating arrangement of particles called the crystal lattice.
The coordination number of an ion is the number ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal. Section 7.2 Assessment 1. How can you describe the electrical charge of an ionic compound? 2. What properties characterize ionic compounds? 3. Write the correct chemical formula for the compounds formed by each pair of ions. a.
b. c. d. K+, S-2 Ca+2, O-2 Na+, O-2 Al+3, N-3
Section 7.2 Assessment 4. Write formulas for each compound. a. barium chloride b. Magnesium oxide c. Lithium oxide d. Calcium fluoride 5. Which pairs of elements are likely to form ionic compounds? a.
b. c. d. Cl, Br Li, Cl K, He I, Na
Section 7.3 Bonding in Metals The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a sea of electrons. Metallic bonds consist of the attraction of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal ions. Metals are good conductors and malleable because of their mobile electrons. Metals
Metals are the most simple crystals because they contain one type of element. An alloy is a mixture with metallic properties. Section 7.3 Assessment 1. 2. 3. 4.
How do chemists model the valence electrons in metal atoms? How can you describe the arrangement of atoms in metals? Why are alloys more useful than pure metals? Describe what is meant by ductile and malleable. Section 8.1 Molecular Compounds A covalent bond is formed between atoms held together by sharing electrons.
A molecule is a group of atoms joined by covalent bonds. A diatomic molecule is 2 atoms bonded together. Diatomic Elements There are 7 naturally existing diatomic elements. They are N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and H2. Properties of Molecular Compounds
Low melting points Tend to be gases or liquids Made of nonmetals Made of covalent bonds Poor conductors Section 8.1 Assessment 1. How are the melting points and boiling points of molecular compounds usually different from those
of ionic compounds? 2. What are the only elements that exist in nature as uncombined atoms? What term is used to describe such elements? 3. Describe how the molecule whose formula is NO is different from the molecule whose formula is N2O. Section 8.2 The Nature of Covalent Bonding
In ionic bonding, atoms transfer electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. In covalent bonding, atoms share electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. Most atoms share electrons until they have a total of 8 valence electrons (octet rule). However, hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to be stable. Section 8.4 Polar Bonds and Molecules
Covalent bonds involve sharing electrons between atoms. When the atoms in the bond pull equally, the bonding electrons are shared equally, and the bond is nonpolar. When the atoms in the bond pull unequally, the bonding electrons are pulled closer to one atom, and the bond is polar. Polarity An atoms strength is measured by the
electronegativity (the ability to attract electrons). The larger the electronegativity the more strongly an atom attracts electrons. The more electronegative elements gets a d- (partial negative) charge and the less electronegative element gets a d+ (partial positive) charge. Sample Problem Determine the polarity of the following bonds:
H Cl d+ dH - Cl F - P dd+ F-P
Determining Polarity Bond polarity is determined based on the difference in electronegativity between the to bonded atoms. Bond Type Electronegativity Difference Nonpolar
<0.5 Polar 0.5 - 2 Ionic
>2 Sample Problem Are the following bonds nonpolar, polar, or ionic? N H F F polar nonpolar
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