Systems Analysis & Design 7th Edition Chapter 7 Phase Description Systems Design is the third of five phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Now you are ready to begin the physical design of the system that will meet the specifications described in the system requirements document
Systems design tasks include output and user interface design, data design, and system architecture 2 Chapter Objectives Discuss output design issues and various types of output Design various types of reports, and suggest output controls and security Explain the concept of user interface design and human-computer interaction, including the
basic principles of user-centered design List specific guidelines for user interface design 3 Chapter Objectives Describe user interface techniques, including screen elements and controls Explain input design concepts, techniques, and methods Describe guidelines for data entry screen design
Use validation checks for reducing input errors Design effective source documents and input controls 4 Introduction Output and user interface design is the first task in the systems design phase of the SDLC Output design focuses on user needs for screen and printed forms of output, while user interface design stresses user interaction
with the computer, including input design and procedures 5 Output Design Before designing output, ask yourself several questions: What is the purpose of the output? Who wants the information, why it is it needed, and how will it be used? What specific information will be included?
Will the output be printed, viewed on-screen, or both? What type of device will the output go to? 6 Output Design Types of Output In the systems design phase, you will create the actual forms, reports, documents, and other types of output Internet-based information delivery E-mail
Instant Messaging Wireless Devices 7 Output Design Types of Output Digital audio, images, and video Podcasts Automated facsimile systems Faxback systems (request fax using email or website
Computer output microfilm (COM) Computer output to digital media Used when many documents must be scanned, stored in digital format) 8 Output Design Types of Output Specialized Forms of Output An incredibly diverse marketplace requires a variety of specialized output
Output from one system often becomes input into another system Although digital technology has opened new horizons in business communications, printed output still is the most common type of output, and specific considerations apply to it 9 Printed and Screen Output Reports Detail reports Detail reports
10 Printed and Screen Output Reports Exception reports Are useful when the user wants information only on records that might require action Summary reports Reports used by individuals at higher levels in the organization include less detail than reports
used by lower-level employees 11 Printed and Screen Output Exception report 12 Printed and Screen Output Summery report
13 Printed and Screen Output User Involvement in Report Design Printed reports are an important way of delivering information to users, so recipients should approve all report designs in advance To avoid problems submit each design for approval as you complete it, rather than waiting until you finish all report designs Mock-up Sample report or prototype for users to review
14 Printed and Screen Output Report Design Principles Printed reports must be attractive, professional, and easy to read Report headers and footers Page headers and footers Column heading alignment Column spacing 15
Printed and Screen Output 16 Printed and Screen Output Report Design Principles Field order Fields should be displayed and grouped in a logical order Grouping detail lines
It is meaningful to arrange detail lines in groups Group header Group footer 17 Printed and Screen Output Report Design Issues Good design standards produce reports that are uniform and consistent When a system produces multiple reports, each report should share common design
elements After a report design is approved, you should document the design in a report analysis form 18 Printed and Screen Output Designing Character-Based Reports Many systems still produce one or more character-based reports When report designers create or modify a character-based report, they use a traditional
tool that still works well, called a printer spacing chart 19 Printed and Screen Output Printing Volume and Time Requirements Length calculations Time calculations Ppm (pages per minute) Line printers often use
greenbar paper 20 Printed and Screen Output Output Control and Security Output must be accurate, complete, current, and secure The IT department is responsible for output control and security measures Many companies have installed diskless workstations
21 User Interface Design Evolution of the User Interface Process-control User-centered system 22
User Interface Design Human-Computer Interaction Human-computer interaction (HCI) describes the relationship between computers and people who use them to perform business-related tasks Main objective is to create a user-friendly design that is easy to learn and use 23 User Interface Design
Human-Computer Interaction User rights cited by Dr. Karat include Perspective Installation Compliance Instruction
Control 24 User Interface Design Human-Computer Interaction User rights cited by Dr. Karat include
Feedback Dependencies Scope Assistance Usability 25 User Interface Design Basic Principles of User-Centered Design Understand the underlying business
functions Maximize graphical effectiveness Profile the systems users Think like a user Use prototyping Storyboard 26 User Interface Design Basic Principles of UserCentered Design Usability metrics Design a comprehensive
interface Continue the feedback process Document the interface design 27 User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Follow eight basic guidelines 1. 2.
3. 4. Focus on basic objectives Build an interface that is easy to learn and use Provide features that promote efficiency Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors 5. Minimize input data problems 28
User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Follow eight basic guidelines 6. Provide feedback to users 7. Create an attractive layout and design 8. Use familiar terms and images Good user interface design is based on a combination of ergonomics, aesthetics, and interface technology 29
User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Focus on basic objectives Build an interface that is easy to learn and use Provide features that promote efficiency Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors 30
User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Minimize input data problems Provide feedback to users Create an attractive layout and design Use familiar terms and images 31 User Interface Design User Interface Controls Menu bar
Toolbar Command button Dialog box Text box Toggle button 32 User Interface Design User Interface Controls List box scroll bar Drop-down list box
Option button, or radio button Check box Calendar control Switchboard 33 Input Design Input technology has changed dramatically in recent years The quality of the output is only as good as the quality of the input
Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) Data capture Data entry 34 Input Design Input and Data Entry Methods Batch input Batch Online input
Online data entry Source data automation RFID tags or Magnetic data strips POS, ATMs 35
Input Design Input and Data Entry Methods Tradeoffs Unless source data automation is used, manual data entry is slower and more expensive than batch input because it is performed at the time the transaction occurs and often done when computer demand is at its highest The decision to use batch or online input depends on business requirements 36
Input Design Input Volume Guidelines will help reduce input volume 1. Input necessary data only 2. Do not input data that the user can retrieve from system files or calculate from other data 3. Do not input constant data 4. Use codes 37
Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Most effective method of online data entry is form filling Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 1. Restrict user access to screen locations where data is entered 2. Provide a descriptive caption for ever field, and show the user where to enter the data and the required or maximum field size 38
Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 3. Display a sample format if a user must enter values in a field in a specific format - separator 4. Require an ending keystroke for every field 5. Do not require users to type leading zeroes for numeric fields 6. Do not require users to type trailing zeroes for numbers that include decimals
39 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 7. Display default values so operators can press the ENTER key to accept the suggested value 8. Use a default value when a field value will be constant for successive records or throughout the data entry session 9. Display a list of acceptable values for fields, and
provide meaningful error messages 40 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 10. Provide a way to leave the data entry screen at any time without entering the current record 11. Provide users with an opportunity to confirm the accuracy of input data before entering it
12. Provide a means for users to move among fields on the form 41 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 13. Design the screen form layout to match the layout of the source document 14. Allow users to add, change, delete, and view
records 15. Provide a method to allow users to search for specific information 42 Input Design Input Errors Reducing the number of input errors improves data quality A data validation check improves input quality by testing the data and rejecting any
entry that fails to meet specified conditions 43 Input Design Input Errors At least eight types of data validation checks 1. 2. 3. 4.
Sequence check Existence check Data type check Range check limit check 44 Input Design Input Errors At least eight types of data validation checks
Input Design Source Documents Form layout Heading zone Control zone Instruction zone 46 Input Design Source Documents Body zone
Totals zone Authorization zone 47 Input Design Source Documents Information should flow on a form from left to right and top to bottom to match the way users read documents naturally A major challenge of Web-based form design is that most people read and interact
differently with on-screen information compared to paper forms 48 Input Design Source Documents Dr. Jakob Nielson believes that users scan a page, picking out individual words and sentences As a result, Web designers must use scannable text to capture and hold a users
attention 49 Input Design Input Control Every piece of information should be traceable back to the input data Audit trail Data security Records retention policy Encrypted encryption
50 Chapter Summary The chapter began with a discussion of output design issues and a description of various types of output User-centered design principles require an analyst to understand the business functions, maximize graphical effectiveness, profile the systems users, think like a user, use prototyping, design a comprehensive interface,
continue the feedback process, and document the interface design 51 Chapter Summary An effective way to reduce input errors is to reduce input volume You can also reduce errors by using welldesigned data entry screens and by using data validation checks Chapter 7 complete 52
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