10/22 (WEDNESDAY) TOTD: Have you ever done something that could be considered deviant? Objectives: Explain deviance from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Describing and applying the components of differential association theory, control theory, and labeling theory Agenda: Articles/rating on deviance/short notes. CHAPTER 8: DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL Objectives:
Explain deviance from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Describing and applying the components of differential association theory, control theory, and labeling theory List and give examples of neutralization techniques Know from functionalist perspective which functions deviance fulfills in society Understand Strain theory and discuss its social implications Understand the role power plays in defining and punishing deviance from a conflict perspective SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST
PERSPECTIVE Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherland (famous American criminologist) associating with some groups results in learning an excess of definitions of deviance, and, by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant what we learn influences us toward or away from deviance Families, friends, neighborhoods, subcultures all influence us SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST
PERSPECTIVE Control Theory Walter Reckless idea that two control systemsinner controls and outer controlswork against our tendencies to deviate inner controls (conscience, religious principals, ideas of right and wrong, desire to be good, fear of punishment) outer controls (family, friends, police) stronger our bonds are with society, the more effective our inner controls are bonds are based on attachments, commitments, involvements, beliefs
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE Labeling Theory the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity labels are names and reputations REJECTING LABELS Techniques of Neutralization: ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect societys
norms 1. Denial of Responsibility Im not responsible because;I couldnt help my self 2. Denial of Injury I wasnt wrong because nobody got hurt 3. Denial of a Victim Do you think they deserved it? 4. Condemnation of Condemners Who are you to talk? 5. Appeal to Higher Loyalties
I had to help my friendswouldnt you do the same thing? LABELING CONT most people resist being labeled deviant, but others revel in it music, clothing, hairstyles labeling can become a self-fulfilling prophecy Roughnecks vs Saints doors of opportunity open for those with positive labels and close for those with negative labels 10/23 THURSDAY
Use your notes from yesterday and decide which category of denial someone falls into if they beat up a school bully? Agenda: Finish notes on functions of deviance
Articles/levels of deviance Gang Involvement 10/24 (FRIDAY) What is the difference between inner and outer controls? Gangs: Most Dangerous in America Go to http:// www.businessinsider.com/dangerous-a
merican-gangs-fbi-2011-11?op=1 GANG INFO: WHO ARE THEY WHEN DID THEY BEGIN WHERE ARE THEY LOCATED
WHY IS THE FBI CONCERNED WITH THIS GANG? Roughly, HOW MANY MEMBERS DO THEY RECRUIT? How do they get members? FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE deviance, including crime, is a natural part of society and fulfills necessary functions Functions of Deviance (Durkheim): 1) clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms 2) promotes social unity
3) promotes social change STRAIN THEORY Robert Merton analyze what happens when people are socialized into desirable cultural goals but denied the institutionalized means to achieve those goals ie: people are socialized to be successful, but their paths are blocks because of social class, gender, etc being unable to achieve those goals leads to strain (frustration) this can lead to anomie (sense of normlessness) because some people find it difficult to identify
with these norms This can motivate people to deviant behavior STRAIN THEORY CONT Responses to cultural goals and institutionalized means: 1) Conformity: using socially acceptable means to achieve goals Or when anomie is present 2) Innovation: accept the goals of society but use illegitimate means to try and reach them (drug dealer) 3) Ritualism: give up on achieving goals, yet accept the means (burnt-out teachers)
4) Retreatism: reject both goals and means of achieving them (severe alcoholics) 5) Rebellion: reject both goals and means; replace existing goals with new ones (revolutionaries) SOCIAL CLASS AND CRIME Street Crime robbery, burglary, drug dealing, prostitution, etc lower SES want to achieve cultural goals, but dont fit into the institutionalized means schools are set up based upon middle class values and ideals; lower SES dont fit, so many drop out Illegitimate Opportunity Structure:
opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life for the lower class = street crime hustling hustlers are role models and attract disadvantaged youth into crime SOCIAL CLASS AND CRIME CONT White Collar Crime committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupation ie: bribery, embezzlement, price fixing Opportunity structures are different, but they still commit crimes can be more costly than street crime
financially costs billions a year (Zeune 2001) unsafe working conditions kill about 100,000 Americans each year, five times the number killed by street criminals SOCIAL CLASS AND CRIME CONT Gender and Crime Women are committing a larger proportion of crimes than they committed in the past Women are still less likely to commit crime than men but are committing more and more, particularly white-collar crimes as
they enter the professional and corporate world CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE power plays a central role in defining and punishing deviance the group in power uses the law and criminal justice system (system of police, courts and prisons) to maintain its power and privilege over other groups the fundamental division is between the capitalist class (those who own the means of production) and the working
class (those who sell their labor to the CONFLICT CONT Marginal working class: the most desperate members of the working class, who have few skills, little job security and are often unemployed many times they commit street crimes through desperation, which threatens social order, therefore they are severely punished
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