# Chapter 8 - Leveling, Cont.

Chapter 8 Leveling, Cont. Adjustment of Circuits Precise Leveling Profile Leveling Cross-sectioning Adjustment of Circuits

Misclosure Difference between determined and known elevation Error adjusted by proportioning misclosure Proportion based on sources of errors

Distance from start better Number of set-ups Adjustments are Cumulative Given: Misclosure = 0.05 over 5 set-ups Assume: each set-up contributed equally

Adjustment for each set-up = -Misclosure/No. of Setups = -0.05/5 = -0.01 Adjustment to the 4th point = -0.01*4 = 0.04 Precise Leveling Shade the level Three-wire leveling

Precise Level Rods Double-rodded Lines Profile Leveling Used in route surveys Determine terrain along a center-line

Route: definite beginning and end points Follows a baseline or center line Tells you nothing about cross-section Location reference Stationing

Assign an arbitrary starting point Every 100 is one station Sta 6+53.25 is 653.25 from the assigned start Dont assign start point to 0+00 Profile Leveling Elevations needed every 100, 50 or 25

Rough elevations nearest 1/10th Too many set-ups if each point is a BM Take intermediate shots IFS Find TP at acceptable limits of sight Profile Leveling Profile Drawing

Scales not the same: V & H Fit a smooth curve Assume: no intermediate shots means straight grade between Cross-sectioning Determines elevations along a line perpendicular to centerline

Prism glass Wing-ding Shots at pre-determined distances Rod-person chooses additional points Cross-sectioning Notes

Often laid out bottom to top Centerline appears as IFS All other shots shown on grid Reading/Distance, e.g. 3.2/16 Rod Reading = 3.2 Rod located 16 right or left

Elevations calculated from last HI Cross-sectioning Notes Borrow-Pit Cross Sections Lay out a grid

Every 25, 50, etc. Use lath to find grid points Label A1, B3, etc. Shots at grid points are IFS Borrow Pit Cross Sections

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