Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Chapter 5 Electric Logic Sensors and Actuators 1 Logic Sensors and Actuators Electric sensors and actuators can be classified as continuous or logic. Logic sensors have 2 states: 0/1, TRUE/FALSE, ON/OFF. Examples of using logic sensors: Mechanical limit switch used to detect an approaching object. Optical sensor or detector used to detect an object that is breaking the beam of light. Capacitive detector used to detect the existence of dielectric objects. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337

Logic actuators are used with a PLC to activate or deactivate the logic switching elements, that will drive the mechanical system. Inductive detector switch used to detect the existence of a ferrous metal object. A thermostat switch (such as those used in refrigeration and air conditioning) opens or closes a contact when a certain temperature is reached. 2 Continuous Sensors and Actuators Continuous sensors generate a continuous signal (voltage or current) that is proportional to the actual physical variable. Continuous actuators are used to activate or deactivate to drive the mechanical system proportional to the value of the control signal. For example, the analog output signal from PLC can be used to activate a linear amplifier that will control the speed of a DC motor. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors

and actuators - IE337 For example, a linear potentiometer will generate analog output signal proportional to linear displacements. 3 Linear Analog DC servo drives Linear potentiometer There are two ways to detect the existence of an object: Physical contact: direct mechanical contact using a physical force contact No physical contact: using proximity technique Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337

Nearby or Proximity Logic Detectors 4 Contact switches Applying a small force on this mechanical liver actuates the contact. Removing the force causes the return of the contact to its original position. Contact switches are available with either normally closed NC or normally opened NO contacts. Micro limit switches can be found with small equipment, while heavy-duty limit switches (more expensive) can be found with large equipment. Contact switches can be used as motion limit switches or as push button switches and used as user-machine interface switches, e.g. start/stop push button switches. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337

Internally, contact switches consist of electric contacts driven by mechanical lever and spring. 5 5.2 Nearby or Proximity Logic Detectors Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Fig 5.1 Examples of contact switches used as limit switches. 6 Fig 5.2 Examples of contact switches used as push-button, key type and selector switches used as machine-user interface buttons. Configurations of contact switches Contact switches are of two types: single-pole single-throw (SPST) contacts.

Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 single-pole double-throw (SPDT) contacts, also called change over or transfer contacts. 7 It has been estimated that 90% of machine automation failures are from limit switches. In many automation applications, the limit switches represent the weakest link of the control system. This is because these sensors are located in the places where action is. These switches are usually located in hot areas, moisture, corrosive atmosphere etc. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors

and actuators - IE337 Drawbacks of contact switches 8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsvjxnN8ZUk Not limited to metallic targets (non ferrous, also called dielectric materials): liquid, water, oil, powder, wood, plastic, etc. Can detect objects inside sealed containers Change in capacitance causes the circuit to actuate a solid state switch Maximum sensing distances range from 5 to 40mm Switching accuracy affected by humidity and temperature Low responses to detect high speed moving objects compared to inductive sensors Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337

Capacitive proximity switches 9 Inductive proximity switches An inductive sensor is an electronic proximity sensor, which detects metallic objects without touching them. The sensor consists of an induction loop. Electric current generates a magnetic field, which collapses generating a current that falls asymptotically toward zero from its initial level when the input electricity ceases. This change can be detected by sensing circuitry, which can signal to some other device whenever metal is detected Common applications of inductive sensors include Metal detectors

Traffic lights Car washes Applications where dirt is prevalent. Elements of a simple inductive sensor. 1. Field sensor 2. Oscillator 3. Demodulator 4. Flip-flop 5. Output Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZKesqSYtZA&list=PL3D1192AC1FFB36DF &index=5 10

Photoelectric switches The object to be sensed interrupts or reflects the beam, thereby making its presence known without physical contact between sensors and object. 3 possible modes of operation Through-beam Reflection from target Retro-reflection Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Photoelectric sensors consist of a source emitting a light beam and a light-sensing detector receiving the beam. 11 The emitter and detector are mounted in separate housings which are aligned carefully so as to face each other exactly.

As the target to be detected approaches, it breaks the beam. In this type of operation the sensor can work for lengths up to 100m, provided the beam is concentrated and the air is clean. An interesting variation of the through-beam principle can be used as smoke detector (such as in domestic fire alarm). Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Through-beam photoelectric sensor 12 The emitter and detector are built into a single housing, which reduces wiring and mounting cost. When the target reaches the proper location, it reflects the beam back into the detector. This mode is only suitable for fairly small distances, where the air must be reasonably clean of contamination.

The method can be used for detecting the liquid level. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Reflection from target 13 A special reflector (typically a formed plastic surface with small embedded spheres or pyramids) reflects the light beam back into the detector, regardless of the angle of incidence, unless the target interrupts it. The emitter and detector are mounted on the same housing. This method can be used to sense a distance up to 10 m in the absence of atmospheric contaminations. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337

Retroreflection 14 The reed switch is an electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. It consists of a pair of contacts on ferrous metal reeds in a hermetically sealed glass envelope. The contacts may be normally open, closing when a magnetic field is present, or normally closed and opening when a magnetic field is applied. The switch may be actuated by a coil, making a reed relay or by bringing a magnet near to the switch. Once the magnet is pulled away from the switch, the reed switch will go back to its original position. An example of a reed switch's application is to detect the opening of a door, when used as a proximity switch for a burglar alarm. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Reed switches

15 A mercury switch (also known as a mercury tilt switch) is a switch which opens and closes an electrical circuit through a small amount of liquid mercury. Mercury switches have one or more sets of electrical contacts in a sealed glass envelope which contains a bead of mercury. The envelope may also contain air, an inert gas, or a vacuum. Gravity is constantly pulling the drop of mercury to the lowest point in the envelope. When the switch is tilted in the appropriate direction, the mercury touches a set of contacts, thus completing the electrical circuit through those contacts. Tilting the switch the opposite direction causes the mercury to move away from that set of contacts, thus breaking that circuit. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Mercury switches

16 5.3 Applications Nearby or Proximity Logic Detectors (d) (b) (e) (c) (f) a) Capacitive type. b) Retro-reflection optical. c) Retro-reflection optical. d) Inductive type. e) Inductive or capacitive

f) Capacitive. g) Retro-reflection or thru-beam. h) Capacitive. i) Inductive. j) Capacitive or thru-beam. k) Thru-beam (h) (i) l) Thru-beam optical type. m) Thru-beam type. n) Inductive (steel cans) or reflection from target optical type. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 (a)

17 5.3 Applications of Nearby or Proximity Logic Detectors (h) (i) (l) (k) (j) (m & n) l) Thru-beam optical type. g) Retro-reflection or thru-beam. m) Thru-beam type. h) Capacitive. n) Inductive (steel cans) or reflection i) Inductive. from target optical type.

j) Capacitive or thru-beam. k) Thru-beam Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 (g) 18 An actuator is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. It is operated by a source of energy, and converts that energy into motion. Typical energy: Electric current, Hydraulic fluid pressure, Pneumatic pressure Logic actuators Solenoids

Relay switches Electromechanical relays Reed relays Solid state relays Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Actuators 19 The majority of the solenoids generate force only in one direction and they are used as on-off actuators Solenoids are simple and cheap linear actuators Widely used in the construction of contactors, circuit breakers, and solenoid valves.

The operation of solenoids is based on conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy, and therefore solenoids are being considered as electromechanical actuators. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Solenoids 20 Type of displacement: linear or angular Actuation type: push or pull Stroke: range of displacement in mm (linear) or degrees (angular) Force or torque Duty cycle f: Life time: standard life is 50,000 to 100,000 operations

Environment conditions: sensitivity to temperature and humidity Performance curve: Force = F(Stroke) Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Solenoid features 21 Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Performance curve of a solenoid 22 Consider a linear solenoid with the following specifications: ON time:

20 sec. OFF time: 150 sec. Working stroke : 5 mm Pull force : 10 N Determine duty cycle and select one of the following solenoids according to their performance curves Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Example: sizing a solenoid 23 Duty cycle: Working stroke :

5 mm Pull force : 10 N Both solenoids A and B provide the required displacement at duty cycle 11% However, solenoid A provides much greater force (52N) then required (10N). Solenoid B provides the required force and displacement at the calculated duty cycle. Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Solenoid-C will not provide the required linear displacement (maximum displacement 3.81 mm).

24 Relay switches Relays are used as : current or voltage amplifiers (i.e. power relays) electric isolation between the control signal (i.e. coil) and the output load (i.e. contact). logic switching elements to control a high power circuit by a low-power signal (i.e. control relay) multi-contact relay, where one input signal is used to control many different loads (possible with different voltages for each load) There are three basic relay types: Electromechanical Reed Solid-state Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 A relay is an electrically operated switch

25 When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that activates the armature The consequent movement of the movable contact(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing.

Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Electromechanical relays (EMR) 26 A reed relay is a reed switch enclosed in a solenoid. The reed switch contacts are made of magnetic material that makes them move under the influence of the field of the enclosing solenoid. Reed relays can switch faster than larger relays and require very little power from the control circuit. However, they have relatively low switching current and voltage ratings. Though rare, the reeds can become

magnetized over time, which makes them stick 'on' even when no current is present Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Reed relays 27 Solid state relays (SSR) Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 A solid state relay (SSR) is a solid state electronic component that provides a similar function to an electromechanical relay but does not have any moving components, increasing longterm reliability.

28 SSR features The life of SSR is nearly infinite They can switch only one circuit, compared to EMR life. hence, muti-SSR required to switch multi-loads SSR can be switched using low They are not good as positive shutoff power electronic devices (gates) devices, since they have a leakage current Resistance for shocks and vibration SSR usually fail in the on state, compared to EMR which is quite dangerous. The application of SSR is not forward like EMR; for example, two types of SSR are used for DC and AC load. SSR are not suitable for very high temperature operation.

Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Advantages Drawbacks SSR switch is much faster than EMR Their initial cost is greater that EMR and has quite operation. 29 5-1) Complete the following statements: Sensors can detect the ..or . Of objects. (ans: presence,absence) The three main sensor categories are: .., ., . (ans: contact switches, proximity sensors, photoelectric sensors). The sensor type that can only detect metallic objects is the sensor (ans: inductive type) The sensor type that uses a broken beam of light to detect objects is commonly referred as a .. sensor. (ans: photoelectric type).

Inductive proximity sensors work best with .. metals. (ans: Ferrous) The transparency of the container has no effects on the sensing of .. sensors. (ans: Capacitive) The initials designating a transistor output that sinks current from the load are (ans: NPN) The initials designating a transistor output that sources current to the load are . (ans: PNP) 5-2) State the main difference between the electromechanical and solid-state relays, what are the advantages and Drawbacks of both devices? 5-3) What are the differences between Load-Power Sensors and Line-Powered Sensors? 5-4) State the main difference between NPN and PNP sensor output signals, sketch the two output circuits? Chapter 5: Electric logic sensors and actuators - IE337 Problems 30

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