Chapter One - Gjhs

Chapter One - Gjhs

CHAPTER NINE ANIMATION CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS Animation basics Traditional animation techniques 2-D animation techniques: Keyframe Tween Programmed. 3-D animation: Motion capture Kinematics Animating with physics.

Guidelines for animation in multimedia 2 PINNACLE OF MODERN MULTIMEDIA Animation draws inspiration from each of the other media. Computer is a partner in creative expression. It lowered costs and increased ease of creating animation. It supports creative expression through: Interactivity 3-D sensory experience Embodiment and implementation of rules of behavior. 3

ANIMATION BASICS Animation: rapidly displayed sequence of individual, still images. Made possible by "persistence of vision." Images formed on the retina persist for a short period of time after stimulus has disappeared. This physical memory of the retina produces the illusion of motion. Early animating devices: Thaumatrope Zoetrope. View sample Thaumatrope 4 ANIMATION BASICS

Flipbook technique Still images showing a different stage of motion are created on each page. Pages are "flipped" in rapid succession to view the motion. Animation basics used in flipbook: Quality of motion is based on rate of display. Speed is based on differences between images. Onionskinning: a technique used to draw new image based on the previous image. Registration: physically aligns images with one another. View a sample FlipBook 5 TRADITIONAL ANIMATION Film based process Images are photographed and recorded as separate frames on long strip of transparent film.

Film passed in front of light source and animation appeared on a screen. Film enhanced possibilities of animation. Multiple reels allowed longer animations. Projectors displayed images at reliable frame rates. Animators could add sound to the motion. 6 CHALLENGES OF TRADITIONAL ANIMATION Number of images to create. 24 frames per second requires 1,440 individual still images for each minute of animation. Methods to generate images include: Shooting on twos cuts number of images in half. Cycle of images can be reused to extend repetitive motion.

Holds produce sequence of identical drawings to extend a particular state or action. 7 CHALLENGES OF TRADITIONAL ANIMATION Artistic strategies to create realistic world require: Awareness of how things move in the world. Ease-in and ease-out address the physics of motion. Overshooting a resting point addresses kinetic energy of motion. Different components of objects move independently of one another (overlapping motion). Exaggerate motion for dramatic effect using: Variations in speed

Stretch and squash. Animation principle explained. 8 Traditional Techniques Strategies for achieving motion have been applied to: Paper cut-outs Clay figurines Puppets Natural objects photographed, reposed and rephotographed. 9 CEL ANIMATION Perfected and made popular by Disney studios. Cel: drawings of individual frames made on sheets

of celluloid. Drawings were then photographed to produce the animated film. Technique that directly influenced development of digital animation. 10 CEL ANIMATION Advantages: Artists saved drawing time. Fixed components of a scene were drawn once and layered on the bottom of a stack of celluloid sheets. Moving components were drawn separately and placed on top of the fixed scene components. Gave precise control over elements. Individual cel layers could reproduce interdependent,

complex motions. 11 CEL ANIMATION Advantages, cont. Encouraged division of labor and promoted high artistic standards. Master artists drew key frames or extremes. Assistants drew the tweens. Inkers transferred drawings from paper to celluloid. Opaquers applied colors to the celluloid.

Additional specialists included: Producers Directors Script writers Audio specialists Camera operators Checkers. 12 PRODUCING CEL ANIMATION

Cost and complexity of creating animation required a carefully defined process. Storyboard: sequence of drawings that sketch out content of major scenes in the production. Pencil test: series of simple sketches that are photographed and projected to test the design of the animated sequences. Scratch track: draft of animations audio track. View View IT IT "Animation "Animation 101" 101" from from Leica reel: working draft Dreamworks

Dreamworks illustrates illustrates the the production process for production process for of the complete animation. digital digital animation. animation. 13 PRODUCING CEL ANIMATION Uses specialized equipment in production process. Specialized paints to convey proper hue. Specialized camera and lighting to capture cels.

Devices to: Track changes in paths of animated characters. Align and hold the cels for camera shots. Synchronize and edit the final film. Cel animation is complex, demanding, and expensive animation. Computers dramatically improved the process. 14 DIGITAL ANIMATION TWO DIFFERENT FORMS: 2-D evolved from traditional animation techniques. 3-D exploited capabilities unique to the computer.

15 2-D ANIMATION Produced by mimicking basic traditional techniques such as: Flipbook technique Cutout animation technique Rotoscoping Cel animation. Paint/draw programs are used to create the components. Animation software can sequence, set timing,

transitions, and produce the final animation. 16 DIGITAL CEL ANIMATION Animations are a series of individual frames. Synchronized to one or more sound tracks. Graphics arranged on layers. Major changes identified in keyframes. Illusion of motion produced as series of tweens. 17 ANIMATION SOFTWARE Elements of Flash organization. Timeline: horizontal row of frames. Frames: have multiple layers in columns. Layers have stacking order (background elements on lower layers, changing elements on upper layers)

Keyframes: define major changes in a frame. Tweens: frames created automatically by software. Onionskinning: assists in drawing changes from one frame to the next. 18 ANIMATION SOFTWARE Frame-by-frame animation: each frame is manually drawn to reflect motion sequence. Gives detailed control of each motion. Time consuming process. Tween animation: computer generates inbetween frames based on two designated key frames. Motion tween Path-based tween

Shape tween (morphing) Size tween Color tween Transparency tween 19 ANIMATION SOFTWARE Provide tools to support animation process. Image-editing tools Alignment tools and grids to control placement Text tools Basic sound control Strategies to support interactivity. 20

FLASH DEVELOPMENT SCREEN Timeline Frame one on the timeline Keyframes and tweened sequence. Development Tools Layers contain individual elements arranged in a stacking order of background on the bottom to sound on the top layer.

21 PROGRAMMED ANIMATION Animators write commands and the computer generates the animation. Requires knowledge of programming and mathematical techniques to specify motion. Advantages: File sizes are smaller. Animations load and play faster. Reduces bandwidth and processor demands. Efficient creation of different versions of animated sequence. 22 PROGRAMMED ANIMATION

Supports complex forms of interactivity. Computer games take input from the user and animate the objects "on the fly." Scripting languages frequently used to generate programmed animations: Lingo Actionscript Javascript. 23 3-D ANIMATION Elements of 3-D animation set in motion include: Objects Sounds Cameras

Lights. Techniques are similar to 2-D animation: Key frame Tween motion. Complex motion may involve using models of humans and animals. 24 MOTION CAPTURE Also called performance animation. Technique of recording motion of actual objects and mapping these motions to a computer-generated animated character. Performers have sensors to track the motion of various body parts as they create the action sequences.

Used to capture complex natural motions that are difficult to create. View View IT IT Demonstration Demonstration of of aa motion motion capture capture animation animation rig rig from from YouTube.

YouTube. 25 FORWARD KINEMATICS Kinematics is study of motion of bodies or systems of bodies. The motion of one part generates related motion in others. Animator must adjust all motion in all related parts of the body. View Simple to implement. View IT IT

Animation Animation using using forward forward Models easily defined. kinematics kinematics as as displayed displayed on YouTube. Computer processing is minimal. on YouTube. Quality of motion depends on animator's skill. Animation is time consuming process. 26

INVERSE KINEMATICS Motion of one body part produces related motions in other body parts. Simplifies animator's work and ensures consistent, realistic motion. Software embodies the knowledge of anatomical motion. Requires innovative programming. Demands more processing power than forward kinematics. Significantly reduces work of animator. 27 ANIMATING WITH PHYSICS Software can automatically generate motions based on properties of object and laws of

physics. Will free animators from more tedious tasks of 3-D animation and produce more realistic content. Animators can concentrate on developing stories and characters. 28 COMPLETING THE ANIMATION Rendering creates the final animation frames by applying: The modeling Surface definition Scene composition as specified by animator. 29 RENDERING OPTIONS

Shrek Shrek 11 in in 2001 2001 used used about about 55 million million CPU CPU render hours. render hours. Pre-render Shrek Shrek 22 in in 2004

2004 used used 10 10 million CPU hours million CPU hours Shrek3 Shrek3 in in 2007 2007 used used 20 20 million million CPU CPU hours. hours.

Requires enormous processing resources and time for animated movies. Computer carries out complex calculations to implement the object properties, lighting, camera angles and motions. Render in real time Computer produces animation immediately. Used in video games and highly interactive 3-D animations. 30 ANIMATION TIPS & GUIDELINES Prepare for a learning curve. Animation programs are more difficult to master. Design for delivery. Minimize file size if delivery is for Web.

Consider clip animation to reduce costs. Consult the tradition in developing motion. Cycles, holds, shooting on twos, tweening, stretch and squash, ease in & ease out, overshoot & overlap motion are traditional techniques. 31 WRAP UP View View IT IT Digital animation based on: Rich animation tradition Powerful set of digital tools Creativity of new digital artists.

Finding Finding Nemo Nemo production production process process illustrates the illustrates the power power of of digital animation to digital animation to create create new new worlds.

worlds. 32 WRAP UP Potential of the "universal machine": An assistant in the animation process. A virtual partner in the creative process creating worlds only possible in digital environments. Animation is the frontier of digital multimedia. 33 WRAP UP Traditional animation set the procedures and techniques for computer animation. Types of computer animation.

2-Dimensional Based largely on traditional techniques. Computer provides efficiencies in the animation development. 3-Dimensional Techniques include motion capture, kinematics, animating with physics. Computer becomes a virtual partner to create and animate objects. 34 KEY TERM CHECK UP Alpha-tweening Animation with physics

Cel Cycle Ease-in / Ease-out Flipbook Forward kinematics Frame-by-frame animation Holds Inverse kinematics Key frame Kinematics Leica reel Morphing Motion capture Motion tween Onionskinning Path-based animation

Pencil test Persistence of vision Programmed animation Rendering Rotoscoping Scratch track Shooting on twos Size-tweening Storyboard Stretch / Squash Timeline Tween animation Tweens 35

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