Chapter Six The First Global Civilization: The Rise and ...
Chapter Six The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World The first global civilization began on the Arabian peninsula with Bedouin, or nomadic cultures. For the most part, the landscape was inhospitable, although coastal regions had
extensive agriculture. Generally, people were organized into clans (kin-related) and tribes (banded together in times of crisis). Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World Clan cohesion caused inter-clan rivalries and war over the control of pasturelands, where grazing lands were for their animals.
Transcontinental trading was very common. Wealthy merchants were often part of the elite in society. Mecca and Medina were important cities for trading and later, for Islam. Marriage, Women and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia Women played important roles, such as milking camels, weaving cloth, raising children.
Many tribes descended through the mother, since fathers moved a lot because of trading. Men had to pay a bride-price instead of a dowry. Art, Language, Poetry and Culture For most clans, there was not a lot of art or even material culture. There was no written language. Poetry was popular.
Religion- blend of animism and polytheism. Some clans believed in one God. Life of Muhammad In Islam, Muhammad is known as the last and greatest of all Gods prophets. Many people from Arabia migrated to Mesopotamia where they were influenced by monotheistic religions, such as Christianity and Judaism.
Muhammad was born into a prominent and respected clan. He was a trader and was impacted by monotheism along his journeys. Life of Muhammad According to Islamic beliefs, Muhammad spent a lot of his time mediating, where he received his first revelation in Mecca. Muslims believe that God (Allah) transmitted revelations through an angel
named Gabriel. These revelations were later written down in Arabic and are called the Quran. Life of Muhammad Muhammad only had a small following but it quickly grew. Other clans saw Muhammad as a threat and planned on killing him. Muhammad had to flee from Mecca to Medina.
Muhammad continued to gather more and more followers and he eventually won over his rivals. Islam Islam transcended tribes, clans and class divisions. Helped to end many feuds and helped to build community Helped develop an ethical system and moral code.
People now were held accountable for actions. Muhammad's Successor After Muhammad died in 632 CE, there was a struggle about who should succeed him. One of the clans decided that a caliph (political and religious successor) should be designated. Ali- the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
Too young Abu Bakr- close friend and earlier follower of Muhammad Sunni and Shia Muslims The main division between Sunni and Shia Muslims is not a religious one, but a political one. Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr was the best choice as caliph. (85%)
Shia Muslims believe that Ali should have been picked as caliph, as the successor should have been kept in the family. Shia Muslims do not recognize the authority of elected Muslim leaders. (15%) Spread of Islam Islamic faithful began to turn one bedouin tribe after another into an Islamic tribe. Brought Arabian tribes into the Islamic fold.
Arab warriors were driven by many forces. Common cause and strength Unity A share of the riches to be won in conquest Glorify new religion Spread of Islam Sasanian Empire
Most vulnerable Power in hands of autocratic ruler Exploited farmers Muslim victories= retreat Captial taken, armies destroyed 651 CE- last ruler assassinated
Byzantine Empire Muslim invaders received support of Christians because Muslims taxed them less than the Orthodox church By 640s- Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Alexandria taken Muslim naval supremacy N. Africa, Mediterranean Islands, S. Italy Muslim invaders reduced strength of Byzantine Empire Umayyad Imperium
Mecca= holy city of Islam Damascus= Umayyad political center Arab conquest state Only Muslim Arabs were first class citizens Lower taxes Imperial administration and army
Received share of riches from conquests Keep from assimilating Umayyad Imperium People could convert to Islam, but received little, if no rewards for doing so This is why there werent many Muslim converts during the Umayyad era Denounced adultery, encouraged marriage Men allowed to marry up to four wives
Muhammads teachings preached equality among the sexes Umayyad Decline and Fall Many Muslims, with new riches, grew addicted to fancy living. In Merv (eastern Iran), over 50,000 people had settled to live and identified themselves with the culture. Umayyad palace officials tried to place new troops in Merv and this sparked a revolution.
The Abbasid army openly challenged the Umayyad army. Many Muslim converts supported the Abbasid army. Battle of the River Zab- Abbasid victory Abbasid Era After the Abbasids replaced the Umayyads, the Abbasids supported Sunni Islam more and more. Abbasids eliminated Umayyads Suppressed Umayyad allies
Abbasids built new capital in Baghdad, Iraq Increasing power of wazir, or chief administrator Head of caliphs inner councils Royal executioner Built administrative infrastructure Islamic Conversion Full integration of converts Efforts to convert new people to the faith No longer the practice of dividing riches
claimed in conquest No distinction between new converts and those who were raised in the faith Most conversions were peaceful Converts enjoyed benefits to becoming Muslim Commercial Boom Abbasids used dhows, or sailing vessels, with triangular sails to carry goods for trade.
Muslims often teamed up with Christians and Jews to do joint trips. Different Sabbaths= trading all week Profit from trade was reinvested in new commercial enterprise. Increase in handicraft production. Commercial Boom Artisans= poorly paid, owned own tools, highly valued for skills
Created glassware, jewelry, furniture, carpets Guild-like organizations to negotiate wages Unskilled labor left to slaves Ayan, wealthy elite in the countryside, created very large estates. Islamic Learning Art focused on great mosques Learning focused on science and math Much of the old learning that had been
lost (Greek medicine, algebra, geometry, anatomy, ect.) were saved, recopied and distributed throughout the empire. Writings from Aristotle, Hippocrates, Ptolemy and Euclid were saved.
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