Chapter 2 Notes Chemical and Physical Properties and Changes States of Matter Solid: definite shape and volume Liquid: indefinite shape, flows, definite volume. Gas (Vapor): indefinite shape and volume, flows.
Intensive vs Extensive Properties Intensive Depends on type of matter NOT amount Ex: shiny, color, boiling point, density, molecular weight Extensive
DEPENDS ON amount of matter in a sample Ex: mass, volume, size, length How to Differentiate If the property is unchanged after combining, it is an INTENSIVE property. (shiny, color, density, melting point, etc.)
If property doubles after combining, it is an EXTENSIVE property. (mass, length, volume, etc.) Physical Properties A property that can be observed without
changing the identity of the substance. Turn and Talk Q: What are some examples of physical properties? Examples of Physical Properties
Color Texture Size
Odor Density Sound Volume
Taste Boiling point Evaporation point Condensation point Melting point Freezing point Sublimation point (solid
to gas, dry ice) Basic information on Water Freezing point- 0C Boiling point- 100C Three states of water are ice (solid), water (liquid), water vapor/steam (gas)
Chemical Properties: Defines how that substance will react with other materials Turn and Talk Q: What are some examples of chemical
properties? Examples of chemical properties Flammable (combustible)- ability to burn Oxidizer- Will combine with oxygen (rust) Reactive- Will create bubbles while chemically changing Corrosive- will eat away by chemical action
(acids and bases) Explosive- Will produce a rapid chemical change with a violent burst of energy Physical Changes: Any action that changes the appearance of a substance without altering its chemical composition.
A change without change of identity, can be classified as reversible or irreversible. Examples of Physical Change -Water going from a solid to liquid to gas. -Dropping a beaker full of acid. -Throwing a bag of vinegar even though you
know youre not supposed to and spilling it all over the floor and then getting scolded like a child. Chemical Changes: Any action that changes the arrangement of atoms in one or more substances. Generally called CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemical
changes cannot easily be reversed. Changes the identity of the substance. Examples: rusting, milk going bad, mixing acid and base, burning a candle, burning toast Evidence of chemical changes: Light Odor Color
change Heat change Gas given off not dissolving Precipitate forming (chunky stuff floating) Elements Can
not be chemically broken down into simpler substances. Represented by one or two letters, and second letter is always lowercase. MEMORIZE #s 1-20, 26, 29, 47, 79 Formulas Chemists use formulas to represent
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