Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemical. The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are known as the reactants. The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are known as products. Energy in Reactions Chemical reactions can either release energy or absorb energy. An exergonic reaction releases energy and will often occur spontaneously. An endogonic reaction absorbs energy

and will not occur spontaneously. Which of the following reactions are exergonic? Activation energy is the energy required to get a chemical reaction started. Burning glucose (sugar): an exergonic reaction high energy content of molecules activation energy needed to ignite glucose glucose + O2

energy released by burning glucose high energy content of molecules progress of reaction glucose net energy captured by synthesizing glucose

CO2 + H2O CO2 + H2O low activation energy from light captured by photosynthesis low progress of reaction Photosynthesis: an endergonic reaction high

A Catalyst is a substance that speeds of the rate of a chemical reaction activation energy without catalyst energy content of molecules activation energy with catalyst reactants Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalyst

products low progress of reaction Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together and aligned properly to react. - the reactants of an enzyme catalyzed reaction. substrates active site of enzyme enzyme Regulation of Enzyme Activity

Allosteric inhibition Up: Enzyme off allosteric regulator molecule pH Temperature on or off keys (binding proteins) Down: Enzyme on Competitive inhibition

Enzyme structure substrate active site Competitive- key Fits lock, but wont Open door enzyme allosteric regulatory site Up: Enzyme off

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