Choice Architecture Nudge, Chapter 5 Behavioral Economics Udayan Roy Choice Architecture 101 We have an automatic system and a reflective system that guide our choices Theres no need to worry about the reflective system But the automatic system can make mistakes
when it is confused A good choice architect tries extra hard to ensure fewer mistakes by the automatic system in every one of us Side Note: Automatic and Reflective What Nudge calls the automatic system, Thinking, Fast and Slow calls System 1 What Nudge calls the reflective system, Thinking, Fast and Slow calls System 2
Please see Chapter 1 (The Characters of the Story) of Thinking, Fast and Slow for further details The entire Part I (Chapters 1 9) of Thinking, Fast and Slow explores these two aspects of our minds, and is called Two Systems. Defaults Every choice situation has a default choice, whether it is made explicit or not
The default is what a chooser gets when she chooses nothing When people are required to choose one item from a list, it is often helpful if the choice architect specifies a default choice that would be a good choice for most people, especially those who need help in choosing Defaults
Dead man switches in dangerous machines, computers that switch off when unattended, auto headlights (that turn off when the engine is off) As most people will keep the factory-set default value of the length of time an unattended computer waits before it switches off, it is important that this default be chosen carefully to help most computer users, especially the least savvy
Defaults Software downloads often come with a choice between a recommended download and a custom download. It is a good idea to help non-expert downloaders by designing the recommended download so that it is a good choice for most non-experts This recommended option should be pre-selected, not just offered However, the custom option should be available for
those confident enough to use it Defaults can be abused Our willingness to stick with the default option chosen for us can be abused by the organizations that make us choose If you are not careful, you may end up choosing a default that gives your permission to a company to send you unwanted mail or phone solicitations
The US Defense Department A provision in the No Child Left Behind Act requires that school districts supply the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of students to recruiters in the armed forces However, the law also says that parents have the right to have their childrens information not given to the recruiters
The US Defense Department The Fairport, NY school district interpreted the law as an opt-in policy: information is given to recruiters only for those students whose parents give explicit permission The Defense Department on the other hand insisted that the law was an opt-out policy: information will have to be given to recruiters for all students except the students whose parents explicitly refuse permission Both sides understood the power of the default option
Default Choice or Mandated Choice? Instead of specifying a default choicea choice that will be applied to those who make no choicethe choice architect could force every individual to make a choice Default Choice or Mandated Choice? Forcing a choice is a good idea when it is important to get the chooser to think hard
about the choice and come to a conclusion, instead of relying on the default This is likely to be true especially when there is no default that is likely to be the right choice for a large number of people, and many people will likely end up hating the default Default Choice or Mandated Choice? However, mandated choice is not helpful when the choice requires expert knowledge.
In such cases, most people would be happier accepting the suggestion of an expert Moreover, the choice may not be a simple yes or no choice. It may require choices about innumerable little details. In such cases, it may be easier to simply rely on the default Expect Error
A well-designed system anticipates the errors that its users are likely to make and helps them avoid such errors Card readers that read data no matter how the card is inserted Cars that warn you if you are not wearing seat belts, are running out of gas, should have the engine checked, etc. Different nozzles for different fuels (at a gas station), so that a car does not get the wrong fuel
Expect Error The hose and the delivery port should be unique to each important injected drug so that chances of confusion are minimized The use of placebo pills to regularize dosage The look right signs at London crosswalks Give Feedback You are much likelier to take better pictures if you use cameras (digital or polaroid) that give instant
feedback, than if you use film cameras that require a lot of time and effort to develop film into photographs Warnings from computers and cars Ceiling paint that is pink when wet and white when dry Choice architects should warn users when they are probably making mistakes Understand how choices correspond to happiness
People make better choices when they have help in understanding what the various choices means in terms of their personal happiness Instead of telling customers the number of megapixels in a typical photo taken by a camera, tell them what is the largest recommended print size Understand how choices correspond to
happiness: RECAP For complex products (especially financial products such as credit cards, insurance, mortgage) one usually has to consider many features of the product and also to anticipate how one would utilize the product and its various features Here a type of libertarian paternalism (nudge) called RECAP can help
Understand how choices correspond to happiness: RECAP Record, Evaluate, and Compare Alternative Prices (RECAP): Require the seller of any financial product to provide a downloadable spreadsheet that shows all fees Require the seller of a financial product purchased by an individual to provide a downloadable spreadsheet that shows how the
consumer used the product in a typical period in the past Understand how choices correspond to happiness: RECAP These documents would enable the consumer to generate, in a spreadsheet, an accurate measurement of the full costs that he/she actually paid for the product he/she is using and simulations of what the costs would be under alternative patterns of use of the product
or similar products This would make it a lot easier to compare alternative complex products Structure Complex Choices When people need to choose one item from a long list and evaluate each item by another long list of criteria, people use rules-of-thumb For example, an apartment hunter may restrict his choice to only those apartments with a commute less
than 30 minutes Such strategies are imperfect; one may miss out on an outstanding apartment with a 32-minute commute Naturally, nudges are needed Structure Complex Choices Online stores have vast collections. But they also offer sophisticated search capabilities by various
categories, and users recommendations and comments correlation-based recommendations Such structuring of choices make choosing easier Incentives While human beings respond to nudges, they also respond to incentives
Make sure users have the right incentives Make the incentives salient (or prominent) so that people dont miss them People tend to overweight the costs of a cab ride and underweight the full costs of having a car A tax on energy use will have a bigger effect if the thermostat tells the user the savings from turning the temperature down by a degree NUDGES
iNcentives Understand how choices correspond to happiness Defaults Give feedback Expect error Structure complex choices
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