CINEMATOGRAPHY - Mr. Craig's Classes

CINEMATOGRAPHY - Mr. Craig's Classes

How position, angle, lens and movement have a major impact on the visual structure of a film FILM STRUCTURE AND THE CAMERA Extreme long shot-A view from a considerable

distance; often used to introduce a film or begin a scene (also called an establishing shot) Long shot-A view from a distance, of a large object or a collection of objects. Often used to establish a

setting, stress environment, or show a characters relationship within an environment (establishing shot). Full shot-A full view of a person

American shot-A three-quarter view of a person, showing her or him from the knees up Medium shot-A view of the upper half of a person's body, showing his or her bodily stance; brings characters

closer to viewer while still showing environment. Close-up-Full view of, typically, a human face; stresses characters or objects over surroundings for expressive/dramatic purposes; guides/

directs viewer to important features of scenes action or meaning Detail/extreme close-up-A small object or part of an object shown large; stresses characters or objects over surroundings

Camera Position Helps get into characters personal space Manipulates what viewer sees Effects of camera position are

context-dependent How is position related to dramatic or emotional context of shot and/or scene? ANGLE OF FRAMING Framing-position of subject in the

frame 3 Essential positions low medium (eye-level) high Straight-on angle-the camera is

positioned at about the same height as the object, shooting straight and level (this is the default angle). Low angle-The object is seen from a low-level position (camera looking up)

high angle-the object is seen from above (camera looking down). A limit case of the high angle shot is the aerial-shot (a bird's-eye view taken from a helicopter or an airplane).

Oblique angle (canted/tilted angle)The camera is tilted sideways showing a tilted view of an object. May suggest disorientation, anxieties, visualizes emotional/psychological instability Angle of framing can convey

characters view of the world and accompanying emotions; also can complicate emotional responses by playing against visual relationships viewers want to have with characters Camera Lens

A lens is a device that gathers light into the camera to a focused point on film, creating an image (emulsion) Choice of Lens can Affect apparent size of objects

Affect apparent relationship of depth and distance between far and near objects type of lens used in each shot helps define relationship between camera and what it photographs.

Focal Length/depth of field- distance from the film inside the camera and the optical center.

Angle of view-how much the focal length of a lens sees Normal lens-focal length of 50mm for 35mm film is standard Telephoto lens-greater than normal focal length, more narrow, will magnify distant

objects with less depth The effect of using a long lens is to compress the apparent depth of an image, so that elements that are relatively close or far away from the camera seem to lie at approximately the same distance.

Wide-angle lens-less than normal focal length, shows a greater, wider area while also providing more depth Zoom-variable focal length, can shift from wide angle to telephoto the frame moves in on or away from an object (zooming in,

zooming out) DEEP FOCUS-all planes are in focus and significant to the scene. All elements at very different depths of the image both be in focus.

Shallow focus-keeps only one plane in sharp focus; the opposite of deep focus. Used to direct the viewer's attention to one element of a scene

Depth of field-Focusing audience's attention on one sharp plain (background in focus, foreground out of focus) RACKING FOCUS-Racking focus refers to the

practice of changing the focus of a lens such that an element in one plane of the image goes out of focus and an element at another plane in the image comes into focus. EXPOSURE-A camera lens has an aperture that controls how much light

passes through the lens and onto the film. Camera Movement There are many ways to move a camera -in fluid long takes

-rapid and confusing motions that establish the rhythm and point of view of a scene. Crane shot-camera moves up or down on a crane structure. Used for long and extreme long shots.

Pan-The camera surveys a scene by turning around its vertical or horizontal axis. TILT-A camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support.

Push in, pull back-the camera moves in on or away from a stationary object. Tracking shot/pulling shot-the camera follows (tracks) or precedes (pulls) an object which is in motion itself. Dolly-rolling platform camera is stationed

on HANDHELD CAMERA, STEADYCAM-The use of the camera operator's body as a camera support, either holding it by hand or using a gyroscopic stabilizer and a harness.

FOLLOWING SHOT-A shot with framing that shifts to keep a moving figure onscreen. A following shot combines a camera movement, like panning, tracking, tilting or craning, with the specific function of directing our attention to a character or object as he/she/it moves inside the frame.

REFRAMING-Short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figures' movements, keeping them onscreen or centered. Structural Design and

Creative Choice -Where is the camera positioned? -What angle is employed? -Which lens is used and to what effect? -Does the shot/scene employ camera movement?

CINEMATOGRAPHY is the making of camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. The look of an image, its balance of dark and light, the depth of the space in focus, the relation of background and foreground, etc. all affect the reception of the

image. POINT-OF-VIEW SHOT-A shot taken with the camera placed approximately where the character's eyes would be, showing what the character would see

ASPECT RATIO-The ratio of the horizontal to the vertical sides of an image.

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