Citizenship and American Government - Pearl Public School ...

Citizenship and American Government - Pearl Public School ...

Module 2 Leadership Chapter 4 How to Give Instruction Section 2 Lecture Procedure What You Will Learn to Do Demonstrate knowledge of the challenge of leadership, the qualities of an effective leader, how to evaluate the performance of subordinates and how to give instruction

Objectives 1. Describe the main steps of the lecture procedures for delivering instruction 2. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the lecture with audiovisuals technique for presenting information 3. Describe the main steps of the lecture with audiovisuals procedure for delivering instruction Objectives 4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the

demonstration technique for presenting information 5. Describe the main steps of the demonstration procedure for delivering instruction 6. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the role playing instructional technique Objectives 7. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the case study instructional technique 8. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of

the discussion instructional technique 9. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the cooperative learning instructional technique Key Terms CPS Key Term Questions 1 - 5 Key Terms Audiovisual aids -

Materials using sight or sound to present information Role playing - An instructional technique involving a spontaneous portrayal (acting out) of a situation, condition, or circumstance by selected members of the class

Key Terms Case study - A published report about a person, group, or situation that has been studied over time; also a situation in real life that can be looked at or studied to learn about something Key Terms

Demonstration - Method of teaching that shows learners how to do a task using sequential instructions with the end goal of having learners perform the tasks independently Cooperative learning -

A learning activity where students are subdivided into groups or teams within which the members work with each other to accomplish a goal Opening Question Name and discuss different

methods or techniques for instruction. (Use CPS Pick a Student for this question.) Techniques for Instruction Preparing to Lecture: Prepare to lecture by: Gathering the necessary information Determining a point of view from which to present the

subject Tailoring the lecture to the students Techniques for Instruction Three Main Steps to Lecture: 11 Introduction Introduction 22

Presentation Presentation 33 Summary Summary Techniques for Instruction Three Main Steps to Lecture 1. Introduction Introduce yourself

State the objective Explain the topic relevance to the student Give an overview of the lecture 11 Introduction Introduction Techniques for Instruction Three Main Steps to Lecture

2. Presentation Break the larger topics down into smaller parts Provide examples, explanations, illustrations 22 Presentation Presentation Techniques for Instruction

Three Main Steps to Lecture 3. Summary - Emphasize and tie together principle points of the lesson, including objectives 33 Summary Summary Techniques for Instruction Guidelines for Effective Use of Lecture Know the specific objectives of the topic

Ensure the lecture is well organized Avoid boring instructing by varying voice stress and intensity Watch the class actions (attentiveness) to determine effectiveness of the instruction Techniques for Instruction Examples of audiovisual aids: Chalkboard writings Dry-Erase Boards Movies, Videos

Diagrams, photos, pictures Overhead projections Techniques for Instruction Audiovisual Aids Can Enhance Learning The strategy of using audiovisual aids encourages comments and questions from students. A multiple approach through several senses (sight, sound, etc.) makes for more complete understanding and

greater retention. Techniques for Instruction Grasping Whole Concepts Frequent use of visual materials by the instructor should help students grasp whole concepts where word explanations are often inadequate. As soon as the object or picture is presented, the word descriptions come into focus with new meaning and lasting effect.

Techniques for Instruction Advantages of Using Lecture with Audiovisual Aids Using audiovisual aids during lectures is an efficient instructional method for presenting many facts or ideas in a relatively short time. It is particularly suitable for introducing a subject to ensure that all students have the necessary background. Techniques for Instruction Advantages of Using Lecture with Audiovisual Aids

Using audiovisual aids with lecture method is often useful to supplement, summarize, or emphasize material from other sources or to provide information difficult to obtain in other ways, especially complex material. It helps to focus the students attention on the specific concept being presented. Techniques for Instruction Disadvantages of Using Lecture

with Audiovisual Aids There are disadvantages to using the lecture with audiovisual aids method: Not good for development of motor skills Requires considerable skill in speaking on the instructors part Assumes active listening and adequate note taking skills on the part of the students Techniques for Instruction Procedure for Using Lecture with Audiovisual Aids

The delivery technique for a lecture using audiovisuals is similar to the basic lecture method discussed earlier. 11 Introduction Introduction 22 Presentation Presentation

33 Summary Summary Check On Learning Questions CPS Lesson Questions 3-4 Techniques for Instruction

When to Use Demonstration It is often appropriate to use the demonstration method when: Teaching technique, procedure, or operation to a small group of learners There is a need to develop students ability to operate equipment or acquire physical skills Techniques for Instruction

Advantages of Demonstration Some of the advantages of using the demonstration method include: Adds to learning by giving students the opportunity to see and hear what is actually happening Can be used to illustrate ideas, principles, and concepts for which words are inadequate Usually holds the students attention Techniques for Instruction Advantages of Demonstration

Can save money, since only the instructor needs materials Can reduce hazards before students begin experimentation or handling of materials involved Can lead to a reduction in the length of trial-and-error time Techniques for Instruction Disadvantages of Demonstration

One disadvantage of using the demonstration method is that it cannot be properly used in large classrooms or with extremely small objects because all students cannot see. Also, it can be ineffective if the instructor only shows and tells without obtaining feedback from students. Techniques for Instruction Disadvantages of Demonstration Use of the demonstration method

may lead to imitation without understanding. Also, this method can become timeconsuming. Techniques for Instruction Three Main Steps to Demonstration: 11 Show Show

and andTell Tell 22 Repetition Repetition 33 Performance Performance

Techniques for Instruction Step One: Show and Tell To complete the show and tell step: 11 Show Show and andTell Tell

Position the students and training aids Ensure everyone has an unobstructed view Show and explain the operations in step-by-step order Say what you are doing as you perform the demonstration Techniques for Instruction Step One: Show and Tell

11 Do not emphasize speed during the initial demonstration Ensure students understand each step before proceeding Repeat difficult operations Pause briefly after each operation to observe reactions and to check for understanding Show

Show and andTell Tell Techniques for Instruction Step One: Show and Tell When needed, such as teaching something involving distinction between left and right, use an assistant demonstrator

Give proper attention to terminology Carefully check students comprehension 11 Show Show and andTell Tell Techniques for Instruction

Step One: Show and Tell Always observe safety precautions 11 Show Show and andTell Tell Techniques for Instruction

Attention to Terminology Use the following techniques to ensure you and your learners are paying close attention to terminology: List the names of parts on a chalkboard or chart Refer students to a previously made chart that shows the parts and their terminology Conduct a terminology drill on the parts of the training aid while the aid is in its assembled or disassembled condition, as appropriate Techniques for Instruction

Check Student Comprehension Ask questions during the demonstration that require the students to recall: Nomenclature Procedural steps Underlying principles Safety precautions Techniques for Instruction Check Student Comprehension

Watch the class for reactions indicating lack of attention, confusion, or doubt, but do not depend solely upon visual observations. Techniques for Instruction Step Two: Repetition

22 Repetition Repetition Generally, there is a need for the inclusion of one or more repetition steps between the demonstration step and the performance step. Techniques for Instruction Step Three: Performance

33 Performance Performance The third step is the step in which the students practice under supervision until they have attained the required proficiency. During this step, they apply what they have previously learned as a result of the demonstrations. Techniques for Instruction

Guidelines for Effective Use of Demonstration Do the following to effectively apply the demonstration method of instruction: Practice/rehearse each demonstration in its entirety Keep time limitations in mind Make sure all materials are at hand Techniques for Instruction Guidelines for Effective Use of Demonstration

Ensure students can adequately see and hear the demonstration Obtain feedback by using questions during the demonstration Conduct a brief review of the steps or provide a short summary Techniques for Instruction Role-playing is an instructional technique involving a

spontaneous portrayal (acting out) of a situation, condition, or circumstance by selected members of the class. It can be a form of improvisation in which the participants assume the identity of other persons and then react as they believe those persons would in a particular situation. Check On Learning Questions

CPS Lesson Questions 5-6 Techniques for Instruction Uses of Role-Playing Role-playing is especially useful when helping students to: Understand perspectives and different ethnic and cultural backgrounds Solve problem situations where different roles are in

opposition to each other Maximize the benefit of counseling or tutoring Techniques for Instruction Advantages of Role-Playing Role-playing can be fun, interesting, motivating, and meaningful, and helps to break the routine of other classroom experiences. It provides insight into common individual and group problems, reveals different attitudes, and tests various ideas in a practical situation.

Techniques for Instruction Advantages of Role-Playing Through the use of role-playing students learn to organize thoughts and responses instantly while reacting to a situation or question.

Techniques for Instruction Disadvantages of Role-Playing There are several disadvantages to the use of roleplaying: Students sometimes emphasize performance (showing off) over the intended objectives of the topic It is time-consuming Some students are unable to identify with the roles or situation Techniques for Instruction

Disadvantages of Role-Playing Hot topics and controversial issues can get out of hand It may benefit only the actual participants unless the objectives for the class have been clearly specified Techniques for Instruction Case Studies Challenge Learners The following happens during the application of the case

study method of instruction: 1. Students receive a case - a report containing all pertinent data 2. Students then must: a. b. c. d. Analyze the data

Evaluate the problem Decide upon principles Recommend a solution Techniques for Instruction Using Case Studies Each case may be handled by: A whole class Subgroups of a class An individual Each case may be designed to be handled in varied time

periods, ranging from a single class period to an entire course. Techniques for Instruction Case Studies and Analysis Analysis of the data involves such things as The use of reference materials prepared for the study, or Knowledge and theory already possessed by

others and listed in manuals and books Techniques for Instruction Case Studies and Analysis Evaluating and determining applicable principles calls upon the students to make some kind of reasons-why-thishas-happened statement. Techniques for Instruction

Case Studies and Recommendations Recommended solutions should be a natural outgrowth of case study analysis and evaluation. Analysis Analysis++Evaluation Evaluation==Solution Solution Techniques for Instruction A discussion is a supervised conversation during which the students take an active role by stating their views on

a certain topic, at the same time that the instructor guides the group to discover certain principles. Examples of discussion types include: Whole-class discussions Debates

Panels Buzz-sessions Forums Techniques for Instruction Ways of Implementing Discussion A few ways to include discussion in instruction: Ask questions Clarify comments Make tentative summaries Place emphasis on student-centered rather than

instructor-centered learning Techniques for Instruction Benefits of Discussion Some of the benefits of employing the discussion method include: Helps develop attitudes Increases motivation Challenges and/or

reinforces individual values and beliefs Active, not passive Maintains a high degree of mental Develops questioning skills alertness and responses

Techniques for Instruction Cooperative Learning In cooperative learning, a class of students is subdivided into groups or teams within which the members work with and depend upon each other to accomplish a learning goal. Techniques for Instruction

Steps in the Cooperative Learning Process 1. Learners are divided into groups. 2. Each team member accomplishes some portion of the assigned objective as an individual goal. 3. They then instruct other team members about what they have learned or accomplished, and receive similar information from the other members. Techniques for Instruction

Steps in the Cooperative Learning Process 4. Team members are encouraged to assist others to achieve their individual goals when needed, and to work together to achieve the overall group objective. 5. The instructor monitors the individual group activities and may be used as a resource for the group, but does not actively take part in the group work effort. Techniques for Instruction When to Use Cooperative Learning It is good to use cooperative learning when sufficient time

is available for the group to do the following with information: Cooperative learning is Gather effective when the material to Discuss be learned is complex or important, or requires both Digest mastery and retention in long Disseminate term memory.

Conclusion When deciding on instructional technique, consider. Number, ability, maturity level, and previous experience of the students Nature of the subject matter What needs to be emphasized skills, knowledge, or values/attitudes Time requirements Demands the technique will make on the instructor and students

Materials required Results expected Conclusion No Single Correct Way to Instruct Some things can be learned more thoroughly by observation or group involvement than through lectures or drill. Some materials need experimental and demonstration treatment. Controversial topics lend themselves best to

discussion or role-playing. The instructor should master all of the techniques. Review Question Discuss some of the specific reasons that an instructor should thoroughly rehearse a lesson before

presenting it. (Use CPS Pick a Student for this question.) Closing Questions CPS Lesson Questions 7-8 Questions?

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