Classic Template - White

Classic Template - White

OSHAs Final Rule on Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica David OConnor May 12, 2016 Final Rule Published on March 25, 2016 Reasons for the Rule Previous permissible exposure limits (PELs) are formulas that many find hard to

understand Construction/shipyard PELs are obsolete particle count limits General industry formula PEL is about equal to 100 g/m3; construction/shipyard formulas are about 250 g/m3 Most Important Reason for the Rule Previous PELs do not adequately protect workers Exposure to respirable crystalline silica has been linked to:

Silicosis Lung cancer Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Kidney disease Extensive epidemiologic evidence that lung cancer and silicosis occur at exposure levels below 100 g/m3

Most Important Reason for the Rule (cont.) Bill Ellis Health Benefits OSHA estimates that once the effects of the rule are fully realized, it will prevent: More than 600 deaths per year Lung cancer: 124 Silicosis and other non-cancer

lung diseases: 325 End-stage kidney disease: 193 More than 900 new silicosis cases per year Scope of Coverage Three forms of silica: quartz, cristobalite and tridymite Exposures from chipping, cutting, sawing, drilling, grinding, sanding, and

crushing of concrete, brick, block, rock, and stone products (such as in construction operations) Exposures from using sand products (such as glass manufacturing, foundries, and sand blasting) Industries and Operations with Exposures

Construction Glass manufacturing

Pottery products Structural clay products Concrete products Foundries Dental laboratories Paintings and coatings Jewelry production Refractory products Asphalt products Landscaping Ready-mix concrete Cut stone and stone

products Abrasive blasting in: Maritime work Construction General industry Refractory furnace installation and repair Railroads Hydraulic fracturing for gas and oil Workers and Industries Affected 2.3 million workers:

Construction: 2 million GI/Maritime: 300,000 676,000 establishments Construction: 600,000 GI/Maritime: 76,000 Respirable Crystalline Silica Rule Two standards: One for general industry and maritime One for construction

Similar to other OSHA health standards and ASTM consensus standards General Industry/Maritime Standard (a) Scope (b) Definitions (c) Permissible exposure limit (PEL) (d) Exposure assessment (e) Regulated areas (f) Methods of compliance (1) Engineering and work practice controls (2) Written exposure control plan

(g) Respiratory protection (h) Housekeeping (i) Medical surveillance (j) Communication of silica hazards (k) Recordkeeping (l) Dates General Industry/Maritime Scope All occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica are covered, unless objective data shows exposures remain below 25 g/m3 as an 8-hr TWA under any foreseeable conditions. Agricultural operations and exposures resulting

from processing of sorptive clays are not covered. General industry employers can follow the construction standard in some very limited circumstances. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) PEL = 50 g/m3 as an 8-hour TWA Action Level = 25 g/m3 as an 8-hour TWA Exposure Assessment Required if exposures are or may

reasonably be expected to be at or above action level of 25 g/m3 Exposures assessments can be done following: The performance option The scheduled monitoring option Performance Option Exposures assessed using any combination of air monitoring data or objective data sufficient to accurately characterize employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica

Objective Data Includes air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition of a substance Demonstrates employee exposure associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, task, or activity Must reflect workplace conditions closely resembling or with a higher exposure potential than the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations

Scheduled Monitoring Option Prescribes a schedule for performing initial and periodic personal monitoring If monitoring indicates: Initial below the AL: no additional monitoring Most recent at or above the AL: repeat within 6 months Most recent above the PEL: repeat within 3 months When two consecutive non-initial results, taken 7 or more days apart, are below the AL, monitoring can be discontinued Reassess if circumstances change

Appendix A Methods of Sample Analysis Employers must ensure that samples are analyzed by a laboratory that follows the procedures in Appendix A Appendix A specifies methods of sample analysis Allows for use of OSHA, NIOSH, or MSHA methods Analysis must be conducted by accredited laboratories that follow specified quality control procedures

General Industry/Maritime Regulated Areas Required where exposures can reasonably be expected to exceed the PEL Must be demarcated in any manner that limits workers in the area Must post warning signs at entrances Respirator use required Methods of Compliance Hierarchy of Controls Employers can use any engineering or work practice controls to limit exposures to the

PEL Respirators permitted where PEL cannot be achieved with engineering and work practice controls Engineering Controls Grinding stone without engineering controls Polishing stone using water to control the dust Engineering Controls (cont.)

Grinding without engineering controls Grinding using a vacuum dust collector Engineering Controls (cont.) Jackhammer use without engineering controls Jackhammer use with water spray to control dust

General Industry/Maritime Written Exposure Control Plan The plan must describe: Tasks involving exposure to respirable crystalline silica Engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection for each task Housekeeping measures used to limit exposure Respiratory Protection Must comply with 29 CFR 1910.134 Respirators required for exposures above the

PEL: While installing or implementing controls or work practices For tasks where controls or work practices are not feasible When feasible controls cannot reduce exposures to the PEL While in a regulated area (General Industry/Maritime) Housekeeping When it can contribute to exposure, employers must not allow: Dry sweeping or brushing

Use of compressed air for cleaning surfaces or clothing, unless it is used with ventilation to capture the dust Those methods can be used if no other methods like HEPA vacuums, wet sweeping, or use of ventilation with compressed air are feasible General Industry/Maritime Medical Surveillance Employers must offer medical examinations to workers who will be exposed above the action level for 30 or more days a year

Employers must offer examinations every three years to workers who continue to be exposed above the trigger Exam includes medical and work history, physical exam, chest X-ray, and pulmonary function test (TB test on initial exam only) Medical Opinion Worker receives report with detailed medical findings, any work restrictions, and recommendations concerning any further evaluation or treatment Employer receives an opinion that only

describes limitations on respirator use, and if the worker gives written consent, recommendations on: Limitations on exposure to respirable crystalline silica, and/or Examination by a specialist Communication of Hazards Employers required to comply with hazard communication standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200) Address: Cancer, lung effects, immune system effects, and kidney effects as part of HCS

Train workers on health hazards, tasks resulting in exposure, workplace protections, and medical surveillance. Recordkeeping Must maintain records per 29 CFR 1910.1020 for: Air monitoring data Objective data Medical records General Industry/Maritime Compliance Dates

Employers must comply with all requirements of the standard by June 23, 2018, except: For tasks where controls or work practices are not feasible Employers must comply with the action level trigger for medical surveillance by June 23, 2020. (The PEL is the trigger from June 23, 2018 through June 23, 2020.) Hydraulic fracturing operations in the oil and gas industry must implement engineering controls to limit exposures to the new PEL by June 23, 2021. Construction Standard (a) Scope

(b) Definitions (c) Specified exposure control methods OR (d) Alternative exposure control methods (1) PEL (2) Exposure Assessment (3) Methods of Compliance (e) Respiratory protection (f) Housekeeping (g) Written exposure control plan (h) Medical surveillance (i) Communication of silica hazards (j) Recordkeeping

(k) Dates Construction Scope All occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica are covered, unless employee exposure will remain below 25 g/mg/m3 as an 8hr TWA under any foreseeable conditions. Construction Specified Exposure Control Methods Table 1 in the construction standard matches 18 tasks with effective dust control methods

and, in some cases, respirator requirements. Employers that fully and properly implement controls on Table 1 do not have to: Comply with the PEL Conduct exposure assessments for employees engaged in those tasks Example of a Table 1 Entry Equipment / Task Engineering and Work Practice Control Methods

Required Respiratory Protection and Minimum APF 4 hr/shift Stationary masonry saws Use saw equipped with integrated None

water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the blade. Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturers instructions to minimize dust emissions. > 4 hr/shift None Example of a Table 1 Entry Equipment / Engineering and Work Practice

Task Control Methods Handheld power saws (any blade diameter) Required Respiratory Protection and Minimum APF 4

hr/shift > 4 hr/shift None APF 10 APF 10 APF 10 Use saw equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the

blade. Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturers instruction to minimize dust - When used outdoors - When used indoors or in an enclosed area List of Table 1 Entries Stationary masonry saws Handheld power saws Handheld power saws for fiber cement board

Walk-behind saws Drivable saws Rig-mounted core saws or drills Handheld and stand-mounted drills Dowel drilling rigs for concrete Vehicle-mounted drilling rigs for rock and concrete Jackhammers and handheld powered chipping tools Handheld grinders for mortar removal (tuckpointing)

Handheld grinders for other than mortar removal Walk-behind milling machines and floor grinders Small drivable milling machines Large drivable milling machines Crushing machines Heavy equipment and utility vehicles to abrade or fracture silica materials Heavy equipment and utility vehicles for grading and excavating

Fully and Properly Implementing Controls Specified on Table 1 Presence of controls is not sufficient. Employers are required to ensure that: Controls are present and maintained Employees understand the proper use of those controls and use them accordingly Employees Engaged in Table 1 Tasks Employees are engaged in the task when operating the listed equipment, assisting with

the task, or have some responsibility for the completion of the task Employees are not engaged in the task if they are only in the vicinity of a task Respiratory Protection Requirements on Table 1 Respirators required where exposures above the PEL are likely to persist despite full and proper implementation of the specified engineering and work practice controls Where respirators required, must be used by all employees engaged in the task for entire

duration of the task Provisions specify how to determine when respirators are required for an employee engaged in more than one task Construction Written Exposure Control Plan The plan must describe: Tasks involving exposure to respirable crystalline silica Engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection for each task Housekeeping measures used to limit

exposure Procedures used to restrict access, when necessary to limit exposures Construction Competent Person Construction employers must designate a competent person to implement the written exposure control plan Competent person is an individual capable of identifying existing and foreseeable respirable crystalline silica hazards, who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures

Makes frequent and regular inspection of job sites, materials, and equipment Construction Medical Surveillance Employers must offer medical examinations to workers who will be required to wear a respirator under the standard for 30 or more days a year. Employers must offer examinations every three years to workers who continue to be exposed above the trigger Exam includes medical and work history, physical exam, chest X-ray, and pulmonary function test (TB

test on initial exam only) Construction Compliance Dates Employers must comply with all requirements (except methods of sample analysis) by June 23, 2017 Compliance with methods of sample analysis required by June 23, 2018 Guidance and Outreach Silica Rulemaking Webpage:

www.osha.gov/silica Fact sheets FAQs Video Appendix B Medical Surveillance Guidelines Coming soon - Small Entity Compliance Guides Questions?

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