Classification of Bones bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip Classification of Bones: By Shape
longer than they are wide Classification of Bones: By Shape Cube-shaped bones of the _ Bones that form within tendons _
Figure 6.2b Classification of Bones: By Shape thin, flattened, and a bit curved most Figure 6.2c
Classification of Bones: By Shape bones with complicated shapes Figure 6.2d
Function of Bones form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs provide a protective case for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs
provide levers for muscles Function of Bones reservoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities
of bones Bone Markings Bulges, depressions, and holes that serve as: Joint surfaces Conduits for blood vessels and nerves Bone Markings: Projections Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachment
rounded projection small rounded projection
narrow, prominent ridge of bone raised area above a condyle large, blunt, irregular
surface narrow ridge of bone sharp, slender projection any bony prominence
Bone Markings: Projections Projections That Help to Form Joints bony expansion carried on a narrow neck smooth, nearly flat articular surface rounded articular projection
arm-like bar of bone Bone Markings: Depressions and Openings canal-like passageway
furrow cavity within a bone narrow, slit-like opening
shallow, basin-like depression round or oval opening through a bone Bone Textures Compact bone
Spongy bone honeycomb of trabeculae _ Structure of Long Bone Long bones consist of a _ Diaphysis Tubular shaft Composed of _
surrounds the medullary cavity Yellow bone marrow in the medullary cavity Structure of Long Bone Epiphyses ________________________________ of long bones Exterior is compact bone, and the _ Joint surface is covered with articular (hyaline)
cartilage Epiphyseal line separates the diaphysis from the epiphyses Bone Membranes ______________________________ double-layered protective membrane Richly supplied with nerve fibers, blood, and lymphatic vessels, which enter the bone via _ Secured to underlying bone by _
Bone Membranes delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones Thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on the outside with endosteum-covered
spongy bone on the inside Have _ Contain bone marrow between the trabeculae Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow) In infants Found in the _ all areas of spongy bone
In adults Found in the _ the head of the femur the head of the _ Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone _________________________, or osteon the structural unit of compact bone
weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen Haversian, or _ containing blood vessels and nerves channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal
Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone Osteocytes Lacunae ______________________________ in bone that _
Canaliculi ___________________________________ that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic Osteoblasts Osteocytes
mature bone cells Osteoclasts large cells that resorb or _ Bone Development Osteogenesis and ossification the _________________________________, which leads to: The formation of the bony skeleton in embryos
Bone growth until early adulthood Bone thickness, _ Formation of the Bony Skeleton Begins at ______________________ of embryo development Intramembranous ossification bone develops from a _ Endochondral ossification
bone forms by _ Intramembranous Ossification Formation of most of the _ Stages of Intramembranous Ossification An _____________________________ appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous
membrane Woven bone and periosteum form Bone collar of _ Stages of Intramembranous Ossification Figure 6.7.1 Stages of Intramembranous Ossification
Figure 6.7.2 Stages of Intramembranous Ossification Figure 6.7.3 Stages of Intramembranous Ossification Figure 6.7.4
Endochondral Ossification Begins in the _ Uses ____________________________ as models for bone construction Requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification Stages of Endochondral Ossification
Formation of bone collar Cavitation of the hyaline cartilage spongy bone formation Formation of the medullary cavity; appearance of _ Ossification of the epiphyses, with hyaline
cartilage remaining only in the epiphyseal plates Postnatal Bone Growth Growth in length of long bones Cells of the epiphyseal plate proximal to the resting cartilage form three functionally different zones:
Functional Zones in Long Bone Growth Growth zone ____________________________________, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis Transformation zone older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, and the _
Osteogenic zone new _ Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth During Youth During infancy and childhood, epiphyseal plate activity is stimulated by _ During puberty, _ Initially promote adolescent growth spurts
Later induce epiphyseal ___________________________, ending longitudinal bone growth
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