Classifications of Crime - St. Johns County School District

Classifications of Crime - St. Johns County School District

Chapter 3 The Crime Picture: Offenders and Victims 2015 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 1 Discuss the primary goals of civil law and criminal law and explain how these goals are realized.

Ricky Carioti/The Washington Post via Getty Images 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Classifications of Crime Civil law Civil court is concerned with responsibility. The burden of proof is the preponderance of the evidence.

The remedy for violations of civil law is compensation. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Criminal law Criminal court is concerned with guilt. The burden of proof is beyond a reasonable

doubt. The remedy for violations is some form of punishment. Classifications of Crime Felonies More serious than misdemeanors Punishable by death or imprisonment in a

penitentiary for a period of a year or longer 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Misdemeanors Less serious crimes Punishable by a fine and/or incarceration in a local jail for up to one year

Classifications of Crime 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 2 Explain the differences between crimes mala in se and mala prohibita. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Classifications of Crime Mala in se Acts that are inherently wrong, regardless of whether they are prohibited by law Examples include murder, rape, and theft 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Mala prohibita Acts that are made illegal by criminal statute and are not necessarily wrong in and of themselves Examples include speeding and loitering Discussion Questions Drugs: To Legalize or Not?

Provide reasons why marijuana should be legalized. What other drugs should be legalized, or not legalized, and why? What role should the federal government play regarding drug use? 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 3 Identify the publication in which the FBI

reports crime data and list the two main ways in which the data are reported. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Measuring Crime in the U.S. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Produced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation The UCR includes data collected from 18,400 policing agencies each year, including:

Number of arrests Number of crimes reported Number of police employees 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Measuring Crime in the U.S. Part I Offenses: Violent crimes Property crimes

Part II Offenses: Includes all crimes that do not fall into the category of Part I offenses Measured only by arrest data 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Measuring Crime in the U.S. Problems with UCR Police notification Discretion

Definition 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Measuring Crime in the U.S. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Measuring Crime in the U.S. The National Incident-Based Reporting System Expanded the UCR

Collects data on each single crime within 23 offense categories of 49 specific crimes Four data sets: Offenses Victims Offenders

Arrestees 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 4 Distinguish between the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and self-reported surveys. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Measuring Crime in the U.S. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Victims of Crime Victim surveys are a method of gathering information in which citizens are surveyed directly regarding their criminal victimizations. Victim surveys attempt to uncover the dark figure of crime. National Crime Victimization Survey

Advantages in comparison to UCR Self-report surveys ask respondents to tell about their criminal activities. Self-report surveys are also an attempt to measure the dark figure of crime. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Victims of Crime 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Learning Objective 5 Describe the three ways that victims rights legislation increases the ability of crime victims to participate in the criminal justice system. AP Images/The News-Herald, Duncan Scott, Pool 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Victims of Crime Crime Victims Rights Act of 2004

Victims right to participate in the system The right to be informed The right to be present The right to be heard Enforceability of legislation Victim services 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 6

Discuss one major concern regarding victim participation in the criminal justice process. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Victims of Crime The risks of victimization Routine activities theory Likely offender Suitable target Absence of capable guardian

Repeat victimization Victim-offender connection 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 7 Identify the three factors most often used by criminologists to explain changes in the nations crime rate.

Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Crime Trends in the U.S. The usual suspects of crime fluctuation Imprisonment Youth populations The economy Continuing decreases

2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Crime Trends in the U.S. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 8 Explain why income level appears to be more important than race or ethnicity when it comes to crime trends.

Photo by Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Crime Trends in the U.S. Crime, race, and poverty Official crime data indicate strong correlation between minority status and crime Neighborhoods with higher levels of disadvantaged individuals have higher violent crime rates Lack of education, a handicap faced by low-income

citizens, seems to correlate with criminal activity There is often a distinct lack of data regarding ethnicity and offending 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 9 Discuss the prevailing explanation for the rising number of women incarcerated in the United States.

2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Crime Trends in the U.S. Women and crime: Crime is a predominantly male activity; however female offending rates are steadily increasing. Criminal justice system is now more willing to incarcerate women. Women as crime victims Common crimes against women: someone known to

victim; domestic violence Increased exposure in the workplace 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Crime Trends in the U.S. Mental illness and crime Risk factors for violent crime Gun control Drug abuse

Risk factors for victimization Poverty because of inability to find and keep job Homelessness Inability to make prudent decisions in dangerous situations 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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