Clinical Psychology: Science, Practice, and Culture
Chapter 1 Clinical Psychology: Definition and Training Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology first used in 1907 by Lightner Witmer Originally defined as similar to medicine, education, and sociology More Recent Definitions Tremendous growth has resulted in a very
broad, hard-to-define field Brief definitions emphasize the study, assessment, and treatment of people with psychological problems More detailed definitions (e.g., Division 12 of APA) are more inclusive and descriptive APA Division 12 Definition of Clinical Psychology The field of Clinical Psychology integrates science, theory, and practice to understand, predict, and alleviate maladjustment, disability, and discomfort as
well as to promote human adaptation, adjustment, and personal development. Clinical Psychology focuses on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of human functioning across the life span, in varying cultures, and at all socioeconomic levels. (APA, 2012) Education and Training in Clinical Psychology Commonalities among most training programs Doctoral degree Most enter with bachelors, some with masters
degree Required coursework Thesis/dissertation Predoctoral internship (more information in later slides) Education and Training: Specialty Tracks In recent decades, specialty tracks have emerged, including: Child Health
Forensic Family Neuropsychology More on these specialty areas in later chapters Three Models of Training Scientist-practitioner model (or Boulder model) Practitioner-scholar model (or Vail model) Clinical scientist model Scientist-Practitioner Model
(Boulder Model): Balancing Practice and Science Created in 1949 at a conference in Boulder, Colorado of directors of clinical psychology training programs Emphasizes both practice and research Graduates should be able to competently practice (e.g., therapy, assessment) and conduct research A balanced approach Practitioner-Scholar Model (Vail Model): Emphasizing Practice
Created in 1973 in a conference in Vail, Colorado Also known as practitioner-scholar model Emphasizes practice over research Yields the Psy.D. degree (not the traditional Ph.D.) Higher acceptance rates and larger classes
Proliferated in recent years Ph.D. vs Emphasize practice and research Smaller classes Lower acceptance rate Typically in university departments
Offer more funding to students Greater success in placing students in APAaccredited internships Psy.D. Emphasize practice over research Larger classes Greater acceptance rate Often in free-standing professional schools
Offer less funding to students Less success in placing students in APAaccredited internships Clinical Scientist Model: Emphasizing Research Emerged in 1990s, primarily as a reaction against the trend toward practice represented by Vail model Richard McFalls 1991 Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology sparked this movement A subset of Ph. D. institutions who strongly endorse
empiricism and science Tend to train researchers rather than practitioners Emerging Trends in Training Technology Use of webcams for supervision Computer-based assessment Competencies Skills that a student must demonstrate Ex. Intervention, assessment, research, etc.
Sample Grad Program Website Self-Description Boulder model example: University of Alabama graduates function in a variety of settings as teachers, researchers, and providers of clinical services The program emphasizes the integration of scientific knowledge and the professional skills and attitudes needed to function as a clinical psychologist in academic, research, or applied settings.
Sample Grad Program Website Self-Description Vail model example: Chicago School of Professional Psychology As a professional school, our focus is not strictly on research and theory, but on preparing students to become outstanding practitioners, providing direct service to help individuals and organizations thrive. Sample Grad Program Website Self-Description
Clinical scientist model example: Indiana University Indiana Universitys Clinical Training Program is designed with a special mission in mind: To train first-rate clinical scientists applicants with primary interests in pursuing careers as service providers are not likely to thrive here. Getting in to Graduate School in Clinical Psychology
Know your professional options Take the appropriate undergraduate courses Get to know your professors
Get research experience Get clinically relevant experience Maximize your GRE score Select graduate programs wisely Write effective personal statements Prepare well for admissions interviews Consider your long-term goals Internships: Predoc and Postdoc Predoctoral internship Takes place at the end of doctoral training programs (before Ph.D. or Psy.D. is awarded)
A full year of supervised clinical experience in an applied setting An apprenticeship of sorts, to transition from student to professional Internships: Predoc and Postdoc Postdoctoral internship Takes place after the doctoral degree is awarded Typically lasts 1-2 years Still supervised, but more independence Often specialized training Often required for state licensure
Getting Licensed Licensure enables independent practice and identification as a member of the profession Requires appropriate graduate coursework, postdoctoral internship, and licensing exams Each state has its own licensing requirements To stay licensed, most states require continuing education units (CEUs) Where Do Clinical Psychologists Work?
A variety of settings, but private practice is most common True since 1980s Other common work settings include Universities Psychiatric and general hospitals Community mental health centers Other settings What do Clinical Psychologists Do? A variety of activities, but psychotherapy is most
common True since 1970s Other common professional activities include: Diagnosis/assessment Teaching/supervision Research/writing
Other activities How Are Clinical Psychologists Different From Other Professionals? Counseling Psychologists: Tend to see less seriously disturbed clients Tend to work less often in settings like inpatient hospitals or units Tend to endorse humanism more and behaviorism less Tend to be more interested in vocational and
career counseling How Are Clinical Psychologists Different From Other Professionals? Psychiatrists: Go to medical school and are physicians Have prescription privileges (this is changing for clinical psychologistssee Chapter 3) Increasingly emphasize biological/pharmaceutical rather than talk therapy intervention
How Are Clinical Psychologists Different From Other Professionals? Social Workers Tend to emphasize social factors in clients problems Earn a masters degree rather than a doctorate Training emphasizes treatment and fieldwork over research or formalized assessment How Are Clinical Psychologists Different From Other
Professionals? School Psychologists: Tend to work in schools Tend to have a more limited professional focus than clinical psychologists (student wellness and learning) Frequently conduct school-related testing and determine LD and ADHD diagnoses Consult with adults in childrens lives (e.g., teachers, staff, parents) How Are Clinical
Psychologists Different From Other Professionals? Professional Counselors: Earn a masters degree Complete training in two years Little emphasis on psychological testing or research May specialized in career, school, college counseling
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