Closing the Gaps - Reducing Inequalities in Educational Outcomes

Closing the Gaps - Reducing Inequalities in Educational Outcomes

CLOSING THE GAPS REDUCING INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES BIRMINGHAM ACHIEVEMENT GROUP SEMINAR JANUARY 2007 JOHN HILL RESEARCH& STATISTICS Groups at risk of underachieving Analysis of educational performance data in Birmingham identified inequalities in educational outcomes for some pupil groups. In particular: African Caribbean children White/Black Caribbean children Bangladeshi children Pakistani children Children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Looked after children Children with disabilities/special needs Boys performance is generally below that of girls at each Key Stage. Changes in the Citys demographics, particularly new and emerging communities, mean that groups at risk of underachieving are not static. The Citys achievement programmes were set-up to raise standards and reduce these inequalities. Further Information Birminghams Examination and Assessment Results 2007

From: www.bgfl.org/perform In LA Data, LA Standards Ethnic group profile of children attending Birmingham LA maintained schools 2007 (Groups with 500+ children) 45.0% 44.3% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 21.4% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% 1.0% 2.0% 4.5% 5.9% 6.3% 5.4% 1.1% 0.3% 1.1% 2.3% 1.7% 2.7%

Ethnic Groups of Pupils Aged 4-15 in Birmingham Schools as at Jan 2007 Key 47% WHITE 21% PAKISTANI 6% INDIAN 5% BANGLADESHI 5% BLACK - CARIBBEAN 4% BLACK - AFRICAN 6% MIXED RACE 6% OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS ## Home Languages of Pupils Aged 4-15 in Birmingham Schools as at Jan 2007 Key 64% English 8% Urdu 8% Panjabi 3% Bengali 2% Somali 1% Arabic 14% Any Other Language % ## Faith Communities of Pupils Aged 4-15 in Birmingham as at January 2007 Key 30% CHRISTIAN 11% CHRISTIAN RC 29% MUSLIM 3% SIKH 2% HINDU 2% OTHER FAITHS 23% NO RELIGION/NOT GIVEN %

Changes in the ethnic group profile of children attending Birmingham LA maintained schools 2003-2007 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2003 2007 Comparison of ethnic group profile of current Y10 pupils and current Reception Year Pupils Yr 10 Ethnic Group No. Arab/Yemeni 107 Asian - Bangladeshi 461 Asian - Indian 864 Asian - Other 200 Asian - Pakistani 2331 Black - African 207 Black - Caribbean 736 Black - Somali 185

Chinese 50 Mixed Race - Other 284 Mixed Race - White/Asian 116 Mixed Race - White/Black Caribbean 387 Not Known 166 Other 246 Vietnamese 30 White - Other 355 White - UK 6715 Total 13440 % 0.8% 3.4% 6.4% 1.5% 17.3% 1.5% 5.5% 1.4% 0.4% 2.1% 0.9% 2.9% 1.2% 1.8% 0.2%

2.6% 50.0% Reception No. % 1.4% 176 5.6% 721 4.9% 626 1.4% 182 27.1% 3495 1.9% 239 4.8% 623 2.5% 322 0.4% 52 2.5% 322 1.3% 172 2.5% 329 1.2% 151 1.9% 251 0.2% 25 3.2%

410 37.3% 4809 12905 diff 0.6% 2.2% -1.6% -0.1% 9.7% 0.3% -0.6% 1.1% 0.0% 0.4% 0.5% -0.3% -0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.5% -12.7% Percentage of pupils from Birm ingham's two largest ethnic groups by Year Group 2007 60% 50% 40% White UK pupils 30% Pakistani pupils 20%

10% 0% 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 Year Group 4 3 2 1 R Changes in the percentage of Birmingham pupils with English as an additional language (EAL) and in the percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) 2003 -2007 37.00% 35.90% 36.00%

2003 2007 35.00% 34.40% 34.00% 33.00% 33.60% 32.60% 32.00% 31.00% 30.00% EAL FSM Black Caribbean Pupil Density Map Pakistani Pupil Density Map White Eligible for FSM Pupil Density Map Primary schools with highest percentages of: Pakistani pupils Bangladeshi Pupils African Caribbean

NANSEN 91% ANGLESEY 54% ST GEORGE'S CE(B19) 67% MONTGOMERY 89% PRINCE ALBERT 49% SACRED HEART 65% SHAW HILL 88% ASTON TOWER 44% CROMWELL 62%

CITY ROAD 86% MANSFIELD GREEN 39% WILLIAM COWPER 59% ANDERTON PARK 85% YEW TREE 35% ST PATRICK'S RC(B18) 59% MARLBOROUGH 85% HEATHFIELD 34% NELSON 59% MARLBOROUGH

82% ST BENEDICT'S 30% FOUNDRY 56% GREET 82% ST THOMAS' 53% SPRINGFIELD 79% ST JOHN'S CE(B16) 52% BORDESLEY GREEN 78% ST FRANCIS RC 51% ARDEN(NC)

77% HOLY TRINITY CE 50% Secondary schools with highest percentages of: Pakistani pupils African Caribbean BORDESLEY GREEN GIRLS 85% AL-HIJRAH 76% PARK VIEW 72% SMALL HEATH 72% HODGE HILL GIRLS 69% MOSELEY 66% SALTLEY

65% WASHWOOD HEATH 61% GOLDEN HILLOCK 57% WAVERLEY 53% SELLY PARK 50% Bangladeshi BROADWAY 33% HOLTE 33% GOLDEN HILLOCK 23% WHITE PUPILS ON FSM FRANKLEY COMMUNITY THE COLLEGE HIGH FOUR DWELLINGS CARDINAL WISEMAN RC

THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL SHENLEY COURT ARCHBISHOP ILSLEY RC DAME ELIZABETH CADBURY KINGS NORTON HIGH CASTLE VALE BARTLEY GREEN SHELDON HEATH COMMUNITY 41% 39% 38% 37% 37% 37% 33% 31% 31% 31% 31% 29% GEORGE DIXON INTERNATIONAL 46% ASTON MANOR 42% THE HEARTLANDS HIGH 34% ST JOHN WALL RC

32% ST ALBAN'S CE 32% HILLCREST 28% HARBORNE HILL 28% HANDSWORTH WOOD GIRLS 24% HAMSTEAD HALL 23% HOLY TRINITY RC 22% LORDSWOOD BOYS 22% HOLYHEAD 20% FOUR DWELLINGS

20% ATTAINMENT TRENDS AT EACH KEY STAGE Percentage of children achieving the majority of the Early Learning Goals in Personal, Social and Emotional Development, Communication, Language and Literacy, Mathematical Development 80% 2005 2006 2007 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Birmingham England PSED PSED Birmingham CLL England CLL Birmingham England Mathemathical Mathematical Development Development Percentage of pupils achieving the majority of the Early Learning Goals in Foundation

Stage Communication , Language and Literacy 2007 70% Girls Boys % achieving the majority of the ELGs 60% 50% England average Birmingham average 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percentage of Birmingham pupils achieving the m ajority of the Early Learning Goals in Foundation Stage Comm unication, Language and Literacy by Gender and eligibility for Free School Meals 2007 % achieving majority of ELGs 60% 50% England average (all pupils) Birmingham average (all pupils)

40% Eligible for FSM 30% Not eligible for FSM 56% 42% 20% 10% 38% 24% 0% Boys Girls Birmingham's Performance trends 1997-2007 100% 90% KS1 M aths L2+ KS1 Re ading L2+ 80% KS2 English L4+ KS2 M aths L4+

KS3 M aths L5+ 70% KS3 English L5+ GCSE 5A*-C 60% 50% GCSE 5A*-C incl. English & M aths 40% 30% 20% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2007 KS2 English Trends 2002-2007 (% Boys achieving Level 4+) 90 Indian Boys 80 Birmingham average (all pupils) White Boys % Level 4+ 70 Bangladeshi Boys Pakistani Boys Black Caribbean Boys 60 Black African Boys 50 40 30 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2007 KS2 English Trends 2002-2007 (% Girls achieving Level 4+) 100 90 Indian Girls White Girls Bangladeshi Girls Pakistani Girls Black Caribbean Girls % Level 4+ 80 Birmingham average (all pupils) 70 60 Black African Girls 50 40 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

KS2 Maths Trends 2002-2007 (% Boys achieving Level 4+) 85 Indian Boys 80 % Level 4+ White Boys 75 Bangladeshi Boys Birmingham average (all pupils) 70 Pakistani Boys Black Caribbean Boys 65 Black African Boys 60 55 50 45 40 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2007 KS2 Maths Trends 2002-2007 (% Girls achieving Level 4+) 85 Indian Girls White Girls Birmingham average (all pupils) Bangladeshi Girls % Level 4+ 75 Pakistani Girls Black Caribbean Girls 65 Black African Girls 55 45 35 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2007 KS3 English Trends 2002-2007 (% Boys achieving Level 5+) 90 80 Indian Boys 70 All pupils (Boys & Girls) White Boys Pakistani Boys Bangladeshi Boys 60 BlackCaribbean Boys 50 Black African Boys 40 30 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2007 KS3 English Trends 2002-2007 (% Girls achieving Level 5+) 90 Indian Girls 85 Bangladeshi Girls White Girls Pakistani Girls Black Caribbean Girls 80 75 Birmingham average (all pupils- boys & girls) % L5+ 70 65 Black African Girls 60 55 50 45 40 2002 2003 2004

2005 2006 2007 KS3 Mathematics Trends 2002-2007 (% Boys achieving Level 5+) 100 90 Indian Boys % L5+ 80 White Boys Birmingham average (all pupils) Bangladeshi Boys Pakistani Boys Black Caribbean Boys Black African Boys 70 60 50 40 2002 2003 2004

2005 2006 2007 KS3 Mathematics Trends 2002-2007 (% Girls achieving Level 5+) 90 85 Indian Girls % L5+ 80 75 White Girls 70 Birmingham average (all pupils) Black Caribbean Girls 65 Pakistani Girls Bangladeshi Girls Black African Girls 60 55 50 45 40 2002

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Changes in the percentage of pupils achieving 5+A*-C grades 2002-2007 (Boys at risk of underachieving) 2002 2007 70% Birmingham LA average 2007 60% 50% Birmingham LA average 2002 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Black African

Black Caribbean White/Black Caribbean Bangladeshi Pakistani White FSM GCSE and equivalent 5A*-C Grade Trends : Groups at risk of underachieving (Boys) 70% Black African Boys LA Total (Boys & Girls) Bangladeshi Boys LA Boys Black Caribbean Boys Pakistani Boys White/Black Caribbean Boys 60% 50% 40% White Boys FSM 30% 20% 10% 0% 2001 2002

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Changes in the percentage of pupils achieving 5+ A*-C grades 2002-2007 (Girls at risk of underachieving) 2002 2007 70% Birmingham LA average 2007 60% 50% Birmingham LA average 2002 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Black African Black Caribbean

White/Black Caribbean Bangladeshi Pakistani White FSM GCSE and equivalent 5A*-C Grade Trends : Groups at risk of underachieving (Girls) 70% Birm ingham average Bangladeshi Black African Pakistani Black Caribbean White/Black Carib. 65% 60% 55% % 5A*-C 50% White Girls FSM 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Changes in the percentage of pupils achieving 5+A*-C including English & maths 2002-2007 (Boys at risk of underachieving) 45% Birmingham LA average 2007 40% 35% Birmingham LA average 2002 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Black African Black Caribbean White/Black Caribbean Bangladeshi

Pakistani White FSM 2002 2007 GCSE and equivalent 5A*-C Grade including English and maths trends: Groups at risk of underachieving (Boys) 70% Indian Boys 60% 50% La Average (Boys & Girls) 40% All Boys Black African Boys Bangladeshi Boys Pakistani Boys 30% White/Black Caribbean Boys Black Caribbean Boys 20% White Boys FSM 10%

0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Changes in the percentage of pupils achieving 5+A*-C including English & maths 2002-2007 (Girls at risk of underachieving) 50% 45% 2002 2007 Birmingham LA average 2007 40% 35% Birmingham LA average 2002 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Black African Black Caribbean White/Black Caribbean Bangladeshi Pakistani White FSM GCSE and equivalent 5A*-C Grade including English and maths trends: Groups at risk of underachieving (Girls) 60% 50% Black African Girls All Girls LA average (Boys & girls) Bangladeshi Girls Pakistani Girls White/Black Caribbean Girls Black Caribbean Girls 40% 30% White Girls FSM 20% 10% 0% 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 GCSE and e quiv ale nt re sults 2007 Birmingham compare d to England av e rage for groups at risk of unde rachie v ing 5A*-C B'ham. 5A*-C Engl. 70% 5A*-C incl. E&M B'ham. 60% 5A*-C incl. E&M Engl. 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 06/07 Secondary School Pupil Overall Absence by Gender/Ethnicity/FSM 14.0% 12.0%

Pupils elgible for free school meals Boy s Pupils not eligible for free school meals Girl s 10.0% Secondary School Average 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% Indian - F African/Caribbean -F Indian - M African/Caribbean -M Bangladeshi - F Pakistani - M

African/Caribbean -F Mixed Heritage M Pakistani - F Indian - F White - M White - F Bangladeshi - M Mixed Heritage - F Indian - M Bangladeshi - F African/Caribbean -M Pakistani - F Bangladeshi - M Pakistani - M Mixed Heritage M Mixed Heritage - F White - M White - F

0.0% FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM No No No No FSM No FSM No No No No No No No FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM FSM SUMMARY Compared to the national average, attainment on entry to school in Birmingham is much lower. Significantly more children in Birmingham have English as an additional language and significantly more children in Birmingham are economically disadvantaged. These factors represent real challenges to raising achievement. There is evidence to show that the achievement gaps are closing, although not yet consistently across each Key Stage. Gaps remain wide in the early years. Most improvements have been made at Key Stage 4 where all groups have improved at a rate that is nearly twice the national average. For example, between 2002-2007: Black Caribbean boys 5A*-C results have improved by 25% (5A*-C with E&M by 12%) Black Caribbean girls results have improved by 19%(5A*-C with E&M by 13%) Bangladeshi boys results have improved by 15% (5A*-C with E&M by 5%) Bangladesh girls results have improved by 12% (5A*-C with E&M by 10%) Pakistani boys results have improved by 18% (5A*-C with E&M by 11%) Pakistani girls results have improved by 17% (5A*-C with E&M by 10%) White boys on fsm results have improved by 15% (5A*-C with E&M by 5%) White girls on fsm results have improved by 20% (5A*-C with E&M by 7%) This compares to a national average improvement rate over this period of 11% for 5A*-C and 5% for 5A*-C with E&M and a Birmingham average improvement rate of 17% for 5A*-C and 9% for 5A*-C with E&M. While these improvements are not sufficient to close the gaps completely, they do represent significant progress

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